Saint Pierre and Miquelon

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First settled by the French in the early 17th century, the islands represent the sole remaining vestige of France's once vast North American possessions.

Geography

Location

Northern North America, islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, south of Newfoundland (Canada)

Geographic coordinates

46.50° N, 56.20° W

Area 214/257

total: 242 sq km

land: 242 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes eight small islands in the Saint Pierre and the Miquelon groups

Area - comparative

one and half times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

0 km

Coastline

120 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate

cold and wet, with considerable mist and fog; spring and autumn are often windy

Terrain

mostly barren rock

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Morne de la Grande Montagne 240 m

Natural resources

fish, deepwater ports

Land use

agricultural land: 8.7%

arable land 8.7%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0%

forest: 12.5%

other: 78.8% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

persistent fog throughout the year can be a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues

recent test drilling for oil in waters around Saint Pierre and Miquelon may bring future development that would impact the environment

Geography - note

vegetation scanty

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)

adjective: French

Ethnic groups

Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)

Languages

French (official)

Religions

Roman Catholic 99%, other 1%

Population 228/238

5,657 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.96% (male 465/female 438)

15-24 years: 8.75% (male 256/female 239)

25-54 years: 42.87% (male 1,199/female 1,226)

55-64 years: 13.68% (male 404/female 370)

65 years and over: 18.74% (male 443/female 617) (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 45.2 years

male: 44.8 years

female: 45.6 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 232/233

-1.08% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 223/224

7.42 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 50/225

9.72 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 210/222

-8.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 90.4% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 0.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

SAINT-PIERRE (capital) 5,000 (2014)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 161/224

total: 6.78 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 7.87 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 35/224

total population: 80.39 years

male: 78.06 years

female: 82.85 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 186/224

1.56 children born/woman (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

NA

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

conventional short form: Saint Pierre and Miquelon

local long form: Departement de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon

local short form: Saint-Pierre et Miquelon

Government type

parliamentary representative democracy

Capital

name: Saint-Pierre

geographic coordinates: 46.46° N, 56.11° W

time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

Administrative divisions

none (territorial overseas collectivity of France); note - there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 2 communes at the second order - Saint Pierre, Miquelon

Independence

none (territorial collectivity of France; has been under French control since 1763)

National holiday

Fete de la Federation, 14 July (1789)

Constitution

4 October 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system

French civil law

Citizenship

see France

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Francois HOLLANDE (since 15 May 2012); represented by Prefect Jean-Christophe BOUVIER (since September 2014)

head of government: President of Territorial Council Stephane ARTANO (since 21 February 2007)

cabinet: Le Cabinet du Prefet

elections/appointments: French president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 6 May 2012 (next to be held in 2017); prefect appointed by French president on the advice of French Ministry of Interior

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Territorial Council or Conseil Territorial (19 seats - 15 from Saint Pierre and 4 from Miquelon; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote to serve 6-year terms)

note: Saint Pierre and Miquelon elect one member to the French Senate; elections last held on 28 September 2014 (next to be held not later than September 2017); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - AD 1 (affiliated with UMP); Saint Pierre and Miquelon also elects one member to the French National Assembly; elections last held on 17 June 2012 (next to be held by June 2017); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Ensemble pour l'Avenir 1 (affiliated with PRG)

elections: elections last held on 18 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2018)

election results: percent of vote by party - AD 52.5%, Ensemble pour l'Avenir 47.5%; seats by party - AD 14, Ensemble pour l'Avenir 5

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Superior Tribunal of Appeals or Tribunal Superieur d'Appel (composition NA)

judge selection and term of office: judge selection and tenure NA

subordinate courts: NA

Political parties and leaders

Archipelago Tomorrow or AD [Stephane ARTANO] (affiliated with UMP)

Togerther for the Future (Ensemble pour l'Avenir) [Annick GIRARDIN] (affiliated with PRG)

Political pressure groups and leaders

NA

International organization participation

UPU, WFTU (NGOs)

Flag description

a yellow three-masted sailing ship facing the hoist side rides on a blue background with scattered, white, wavy lines under the ship; a continuous black-over-white wavy line divides the ship from the white wavy lines; on the hoist side, a vertical band is divided into three parts: the top part (called ikkurina) is red with a green diagonal cross extending to the corners overlaid by a white cross dividing the rectangle into four sections; the middle part has a white background with an ermine pattern; the third part has a red background with two stylized yellow lions outlined in black, one above the other; these three heraldic arms represent settlement by colonists from the Basque Country (top), Brittany, and Normandy; the blue on the main portion of the flag symbolizes the Atlantic Ocean and the stylized ship represents the Grande Hermine in which Jacques Cartier "discovered" the islands in 1536

note: the flag of France used for official occasions

National symbol(s)

16th-century sailing ship

National anthem

note: as a collectivity of France, "La Marseillaise" is official (see France)

Economy

Economy - overview

The inhabitants have traditionally earned their livelihood by fishing and by servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however, because of disputes with Canada over fishing quotas and a steady decline in the number of ships stopping at Saint Pierre. In 1992, an arbitration panel awarded the islands an exclusive economic zone of 12,348 sq km to settle a longstanding territorial dispute with Canada, although it represents only 25% of what France had sought. France heavily subsidizes the islands to the great betterment of living standards. The government hopes an expansion of tourism will boost economic prospects. Fish farming, crab fishing, and agriculture are being developed to diversify the local economy. Recent test drilling for oil may pave the way for development of the energy sector.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 219/230

$215.3 million (2006 est.)

note: supplemented by annual payments from France of about $60 million

GDP (official exchange rate)

$215.3 million (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

NA%

GDP - per capita (PPP) 51/230

$34,900 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2%

industry: 15%

services: 83% (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products

vegetables; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish

Industries

fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism

Industrial production growth rate

NA%

Labor force 224/233

3,194 (2006)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 18%

industry: 41%

services: 41% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate 113/207

9.9% (2008 est.)

Population below poverty line

NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Budget

revenues: $70 million

expenditures: $60 million (1996 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 76/219

32.5% of GDP (1996 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 7/220

4.6% of GDP (1996 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 169/226

4.5% (2010)

8.1% (2005)

Exports 217/224

$6.641 million (2010 est.)

$5.5 million (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities

fish and fish products, soybeans, animal feed, mollusks and crustaceans, fox and mink pelts

Imports 216/223

$95.35 million (2010 est.)

$68.2 million (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities

meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment, machinery, building materials

Debt - external

$NA

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.89 (2015 est.)

0.75 (2014 est.)

0.76 (2013 est.)

0.78 (2012 est.)

0.72 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 209/220

43 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 209/219

39.99 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 190/218

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 196/219

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 199/214

26,600 kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 57/214

97.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 175/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 197/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 79/212

2.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 185/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 182/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 120/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 184/215

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 126/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 206/212

600 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 127/214

1.24 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 203/213

604.4 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 123/216

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 189/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 173/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 128/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 188/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 203/212

151,100 Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 209/219

total subscriptions: 4,800

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 81 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: adequate

international: country code - 508; radiotelephone communication with most countries in the world; satellite earth station - 1 in French domestic satellite system

Broadcast media

2 TV stations with a third repeater station, all part of the French Overseas Network; radio stations on St. Pierre and on Miquelon are part of the French Overseas Network (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Television broadcast stations

0 (2 repeaters rebroadcast programs from France, Canada, and the US) (1997)

Internet country code

.pm

Internet hosts 224/232

15 (2012)

Transportation

Airports 205/236

2 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)

Roadways 215/223

total: 117 km

paved: 80 km

unpaved: 37 km (2009)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Saint-Pierre

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

none