San Marino

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Geographically the third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco), San Marino also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named MARINUS in A.D. 301. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of the European Union, although it is not a member; social and political trends in the republic track closely with those of its larger neighbor, Italy.

Geography

Location

Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy

Geographic coordinates

43.46° N, 12.25° E

Area 229/257

total: 61 sq km

land: 61 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative

about one-third the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

total: 37 km

border countries (1): Italy 37 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

Terrain

rugged mountains

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m

highest point: Monte Titano 755 m

Natural resources

building stone

Land use

agricultural land: 16.7%

arable land 16.7%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0%

forest: 0%

other: 83.3% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

NA

Natural hazards

NA

Environment - current issues

air pollution; urbanization decreasing rural farmlands

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution

Geography - note

landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennine Mountains

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)

adjective: Sammarinese

Ethnic groups

Sammarinese, Italian

Languages

Italian

Religions

Roman Catholic

Population 216/238

33,020 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.69% (male 2,756/female 2,424)

15-24 years: 11.15% (male 1,890/female 1,792)

25-54 years: 41.88% (male 6,518/female 7,310)

55-64 years: 12.19% (male 2,009/female 2,015)

65 years and over: 19.1% (male 2,822/female 3,484) (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 43.9 years

male: 42.9 years

female: 44.7 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 134/233

0.82% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 215/224

8.63 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 79/225

8.45 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 14/222

8.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 94.2% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 0.62% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

SAN MARINO 4,000 (2014)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.14 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.89 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 183/224

total: 4.45 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.65 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 5/224

total population: 83.24 years

male: 80.69 years

female: 86.01 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 198/224

1.49 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Health expenditures 94/191

6.5% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

5.1 physicians/1,000 population (2013)

Hospital bed density

3.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

NA

Education expenditures

NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 15 years

female: 16 years (2011)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of San Marino

conventional short form: San Marino

local long form: Repubblica di San Marino

local short form: San Marino

note: named after the traditional founder of the country, Saint MARINUS

Government type

republic

Capital

name: San Marino

geographic coordinates: 43.56° N, 12.25° E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, San Marino Citta, Serravalle

Independence

3 September 301 (traditional founding date)

National holiday

Founding of the Republic, 3 September (A.D. 301)

Constitution

consists of several legislative instruments, chief among them the Statutes (Leges Statuti) of 1600 and the Declaration of Citizen Rights of 1974; latter document amended 2000, 2002, 2005 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system with Italian civil law influences

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of San Marino

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 30 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: co-chiefs of state Captain Regent Lorella STEFANELLI and Captain Regent Nicola RENZI (for the period 1 October 2015 - 1 April 2016)

head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Pasquale VALENTINI (since 5 December 2012)

cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Grand and General Council

elections/appointments: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) indirectly elected by the Grand and General Council for a single 6-month term; election last held in September 2015 (next to be held in March 2016); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs indirectly elected by the Grand and General Council for a single 5-year term; election last held on 11 November 2012 (next to be held by November 2017)

election results: Lorella STEFANELLI (PDCS) and Nicola RENZI (AP) elected captains regent; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA; Pasquale VALENTINI (PDCS) elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA

note: the directly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects 2 of its members to serve as the captains regent (co-chiefs of state) for a 6-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 9 other members, all are selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 9 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has some prime ministerial roles

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 11 November 2012 (next to be held by November 2017)

election results: percent of vote by party - San Marino Common Good coalition (San Marino Bene Comune) 50.7% (including PDCS 29.5%, PSD 14.3%, AP 6.7%), Entente for the Country coalition (Intesa per Il Paese) 22.3% (including PS 12.1%, UPR 8.4%, USDM 1.7%), Active Citizenry coalition (Cittadinanza Attiva) 16.1% (including SU 9.1%, Civic 10 6.7%), Civic Movement R.E.T.E. 6.3%, For San Marino 2.8%, San Marino 3.0 1.8%; seats by party - San Marino Common Good coalition 35 (PDCS 21, PSD 10, AP 4), Entente for the Country coalition 12 (PS 7, UPR 5), Active Citizenry 9 (SU 5, Civic 10 4), Civic Movement R.E.T.E. 4

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII (consists of 12 members); note - the College of Guarantors for the Constitutionality and General Norms functions as San Marino's constitutional court

judge selection and term of office: judges elected by the Grand and General Council from among its own to serve 5-year terms

subordinate courts: first instance and first appeal criminal, administrative, and civil courts; justices of the peace or conciliatory judges

Political parties and leaders

San Marino Common Good (includes Sammarinese Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Marco GATTI], Party of Socialists and Democrats or PSD [Paride ANDREOLI], Popular Alliance or AP [Gabriele GATTI])

Entente for the Country (Intesa per il Paese;includes Sammarinese Union of Moderates or USDM; dissolved after 2012 election, Socialist Party or PS [Alessandro BEVITORI], Union for the Republic or UPR [Marco PODESCHI)

Active Citizenship (includes Civic 10 [Mateo CIACCI], United Left or SU [Gastone PASOLINI])

Political pressure groups and leaders

NA

International organization participation

CE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the main colors derive from the shield of the coat of arms, which features three white towers on three peaks on a blue field; the towers represent three castles built on San Marino's highest feature, Mount Titano: Guaita, Cesta, and Montale; the coat of arms is flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty); the white and blue colors are also said to stand for peace and liberty respectively

National symbol(s)

three peaks each displaying a tower; national colors: white, blue

National anthem

name: "Inno Nazionale della Repubblica" (National Anthem of the Republic)

lyrics/music: no lyrics/Federico CONSOLO

note: adopted 1894; the music for the lyric-less anthem is based on a 10th century chorale piece

Economy

Economy - overview

San Marino's economy relies heavily on tourism, the banking industry and the manufacture and export of ceramics, clothing, fabrics, furniture, paints, spirits, tiles, and wine. The manufacturing and financial sectors account for more than half of San Marino's GDP. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy.

San Marino's economy has been contracting since 2008, largely due to weakened demand from Italy - which accounts for nearly 90% of its export market - and financial sector consolidation. Difficulties in the banking sector, the recent global economic downturn, and the sizable decline in tax revenues have contributed to negative real GDP growth. The government has adopted measures to counter the economic downturn, including subsidized credit to businesses and is seeking to shift its growth model away from a reliance on bank and tax secrecy. San Marino does not issue public debt securities; when necessary, it finances deficits by drawing down central bank deposits.

The economy benefits from foreign investment due to its relatively low corporate taxes and low taxes on interest earnings. The income tax rate is also very low, about one-third the average EU level. San Marino continues to work towards harmonizing its fiscal laws with EU and international standards. In September 2009, the OECD removed San Marino from its list of tax havens that have yet to fully adopt global tax standards, and in 2010 San Marino signed Tax Information Exchange Agreements with most major countries. In 2013 San Marino's Government signed a Double Taxation Agreement with Italy, but a referendum on EU membership failed to reach the quorum needed to bring it to a vote.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 196/230

$1.952 billion (2015 est.)

$1.933 billion (2014 est.)

$1.952 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.543 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 180/225

1% (2015 est.)

-1% (2014 est.)

-4.5% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 15/230

$62,100 (2015 est.)

$61,500 (2014 est.)

$62,100 (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

exports of goods and services: 176.6%

imports of goods and services: -153.3% (2011)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0.1%

industry: 39.2%

services: 60.7% (2009)

Agriculture - products

wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides

Industries

tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine

Industrial production growth rate 172/202

-1.1% (2012 est.)

Labor force 212/233

21,960 (September 2013 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 0.2%

industry: 33.5%

services: 66.3% (September 2013 est.)

Unemployment rate 102/207

8.7% (2014 est.)

8.1% (2013 est.)

Population below poverty line

NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Budget

revenues: $667.7 million

expenditures: $712.4 million (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 31/219

43.3% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 104/220

-2.9% of GDP (2011 est.)

Public debt 147/176

25.8% of GDP (2013 est.)

20.3% of GDP (2012 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 50/226

0.4% (2015 est.)

1.1% (2014 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 131/184

5.92% (31 December 2011 est.)

5.38% (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$NA

$1.326 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of broad money

$NA

$4.584 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of domestic credit 106/191

$8.822 billion (30 September 2010)

$8.008 billion (31 December 2009)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$NA

Exports 119/224

$3.827 billion (2011 est.)

$2.576 billion (2010 est.)

Exports - commodities

building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics

Exports - partners

Italy 82.3% (2012 est.)

Imports 153/223

$2.551 billion (2011 est.)

$2.132 billion (2010 est.)

Imports - commodities

wide variety of consumer manufactures, food, energy

Imports - partners

Italy 81.8% (2012 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 154/170

$392 million (2014 est.)

$539.3 million (2013 est.)

Debt - external

$NA

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.89 (2015 est.)

0.75 (2014 est.)

0.76 (2013 est.)

0.78 2012 est.)

0.72 (2011 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 186/219

total subscriptions: 18,600

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 57 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 206/217

total: 37,600

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 115 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity 170 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network (2011)

Broadcast media

state-owned public broadcaster operates 1 TV station and 3 radio stations; receives radio and TV broadcasts from Italy (2012)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 0, FM 2, shortwave 0 (2008)

Television broadcast stations

1 (San Marino residents also receive broadcasts from Italy) (1997)

Internet country code

.sm

Internet hosts 133/232

11,015 (2012)

Internet users 202/217

total: 17,200

percent of population: 52.6% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Roadways 206/223

total: 292 km

paved: 292 km (2006)

Military and Security

Military branches

no regular military forces; voluntary Military Corps (Corpi Militari) performs ceremonial duties and limited police support functions (2010)

Military service age and obligation

18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription; government has the authority to call up all San Marino citizens from 16-60 years of age to service in the military (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

none