Serbia

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The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Communist Partisans resisted the Axis occupation and division of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945 and fought nationalist opponents and collaborators as well. The military and political movement headed by Josip Broz "TITO" (Partisans) took full control of Yugoslavia when their domestic rivals and the occupiers were defeated in 1945. Although communists, TITO and his successors (Tito died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In 1989, Slobodan MILOSEVIC became president of the Republic of Serbia and his ultranationalist calls for Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines. In 1991, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia declared independence, followed by Bosnia in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in April 1992 and under MILOSEVIC's leadership, Serbia led various military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia." These actions ultimately failed and, after international intervention, led to the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995.

MILOSEVIC retained control over Serbia and eventually became president of the FRY in 1997. In 1998, an ethnic Albanian insurgency in the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosovo provoked a Serbian counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo. The MILOSEVIC government's rejection of a proposed international settlement led to NATO's bombing of Serbia in the spring of 1999. Serbian military and police forces withdrew from Kosovo in June 1999, and the UN Security Council authorized an interim UN administration and a NATO-led security force in Kosovo. FRY elections in late 2000 led to the ouster of MILOSEVIC and the installation of democratic government. In 2003, the FRY became the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, a loose federation of the two republics. Widespread violence predominantly targeting ethnic Serbs in Kosovo in March 2004 led to more intense calls to address Kosovo's status, and the UN began facilitating status talks in 2006. In June 2006, Montenegro seceded from the federation and declared itself an independent nation. Serbia subsequently gave notice that it was the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro.

In February 2008, after nearly two years of inconclusive negotiations, Kosovo declared itself independent of Serbia - an action Serbia refuses to recognize. At Serbia's request, the UN General Assembly (UNGA) in October 2008 sought an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on whether Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence was in accordance with international law. In a ruling considered unfavorable to Serbia, the ICJ issued an advisory opinion in July 2010 stating that international law did not prohibit declarations of independence. In late 2010, Serbia agreed to an EU-drafted UNGA Resolution acknowledging the ICJ's decision and calling for a new round of talks between Serbia and Kosovo, this time on practical issues rather than Kosovo's status. Serbia and Kosovo signed the first agreement of principles governing the normalization of relations between the two countries in April 2013 and are in the process of implementing its provisions. In January 2014, the EU opened formal negotiations on Serbia's accession to the EU.

Geography

Location

Southeastern Europe, between Macedonia and Hungary

Geographic coordinates

44.00° N, 21.00° E

Area 117/257

total: 77,474 sq km

land: 77,474 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries

total: 2,322 km

border countries (8): Bosnia and Herzegovina 345 km, Bulgaria 344 km, Croatia 314 km, Hungary 164 km, Kosovo 366 km, Macedonia 101 km, Montenegro 157 km, Romania 531 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well-distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)

Terrain

extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Danube and Timok Rivers 35 m

highest point: Midzor 2,169 m

Natural resources

oil, gas, coal, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, chromite, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 57.9%

arable land 37.7%; permanent crops 3.4%; permanent pasture 16.8%

forest: 31.6%

other: 10.5% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

919.6 sq km (2011)

Total renewable water resources

162.2 cu km (note - includes Kosovo) (2011)

Natural hazards

destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues

air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Serb(s)

adjective: Serbian

Ethnic groups

Serb 83.3%, Hungarian 3.5%, Romany 2.1%, Bosniak 2%, other 5.7%, undeclared or unknown 3.4% (2011 est.)

Languages

Serbian (official) 88.1%, Hungarian 3.4%, Bosnian 1.9%, Romany 1.4%, other 3.4%, undeclared or unknown 1.8%

note: Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, and Rusyn all official in Vojvodina (2011 est.)

Religions

Serbian Orthodox 84.6%, Catholic 5%, Muslim 3.1%, Protestant 1%, atheist 1.1%, other 0.8%, undeclared or unknown 4.5% (2011 est.)

Population 102/238

7,176,794

note: does not include the population of Kosovo (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.74% (male 545,685/female 512,443)

15-24 years: 11.46% (male 423,785/female 398,878)

25-54 years: 41.52% (male 1,503,100/female 1,476,843)

55-64 years: 14.66% (male 506,796/female 545,165)

65 years and over: 17.61% (male 519,501/female 744,598) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 50.1%

youth dependency ratio: 24.5%

elderly dependency ratio: 25.6%

potential support ratio: 3.9% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 42.1 years

male: 40.4 years

female: 43.8 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 222/233

-0.46% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 209/224

9.08 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 12/225

13.66 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 83/222

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 55.6% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: -0.34% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

BELGRADE (capital) 1.182 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

27.5 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 149/184

17 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 166/224

total: 6.05 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 6.96 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 102/224

total population: 75.26 years

male: 72.39 years

female: 78.31 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 209/224

1.43 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

60.8% (2010)

Health expenditures 19/191

10.6% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

2.11 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density

5.4 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 99.4% of population

rural: 98.9% of population

total: 99.2% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0.6% of population

rural: 1.1% of population

total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 98.2% of population

rural: 94.2% of population

total: 96.4% of population

unimproved:

urban: 1.8% of population

rural: 5.8% of population

total: 3.6% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.05% (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

3,000 (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

100 (2013 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 63/191

21.1% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 125/138

1.8% (2014)

Education expenditures 82/173

4.8% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2013)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 7/134

total: 49.4%

male: N/A

female: N/A (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Serbia

conventional short form: Serbia

local long form: Republika Srbija

local short form: Srbija

former: People's Republic of Serbia, Socialist Republic of Serbia

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Belgrade (Beograd)

geographic coordinates: 44.50° N, 20.30° E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

122 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina) and 23 cities (gradovi, singular - grad)

municipalities: Ada*, Aleksandrovac, Aleksinac, Alibunar*, Apatin*, Arandelovac, Arilje, Babusnica, Bac*, Backa Palanka*, Backa Topola*, Backi Petrovac*, Bajina Basta, Batocina, Becej*, Bela Crkva*, Bela Palanka, Beocin*, Blace, Bogatic, Bojnik, Boljevac, Bor, Bosilegrad, Brus, Bujanovac, Cajetina, Cicevac, Coka*, Crna Trava, Cuprija, Despotovac, Dimitrov, Doljevac, Gadzin Han, Golubac, Gornji Milanovac, Indija*, Irig*, Ivanjica, Kanjiza*, Kikinda*, Kladovo, Knic, Knjazevac, Koceljeva, Kosjeric, Kovacica*, Kovin*, Krupanj, Kucevo, Kula*, Kursumlija, Lajkovac, Lapovo, Lebane, Ljig, Ljubovija, Lucani, Majdanpek, Mali Idos*, Mali Zvornik, Malo Crnice, Medveda, Merosina, Mionica, Negotin, Nova Crnja*, Nova Varos, Novi Becej*, Novi Knezevac*, Odzaci*, Opovo*, Osecina, Paracin, Pecinci*, Petrovac na Mlavi, Pirot, Plandiste*, Pozega, Presevo, Priboj, Prijepolje, Prokuplje, Raca, Raska, Razanj, Rekovac, Ruma*, Secanj*, Senta*, Sid*, Sjenica, Smederevska Palanka, Sokobanja, Srbobran*, Sremski Karlovci*, Stara Pazova*, Surdulica, Svilajnac, Svrljig, Temerin*, Titel*, Topola, Trgoviste, Trstenik, Tutin, Ub, Varvarin, Velika Plana, Veliko Gradiste, Vladicin Han, Vladimirci, Vlasotince, Vrbas*, Vrnjacka Banja, Vrsac*, Zabalj*, Zabari, Zagubica, Zitiste*, Zitorada

cities: Beograd, Cacak, Jagodina, Kragujevac, Kraljevo, Krusevac, Leskovac, Loznica, Nis, Novi Pazar, Novi Sad*, Pancevo*, Pozarevac, Sabac, Smederevo, Sombor*, Sremska Mitrovica*, Subotica*, Uzice, Vajevo, Vranje, Zajecar, Zrenjanin*

note: the northern 39 municipalities and 6 cities - about 28% of Serbia's area - compose the autonomous province of Vojvodina and are indicated with *

Independence

5 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro)

National holiday

National Day, 15 February (1835), the day the first constitution of the country was adopted

Constitution

many previous; latest approved by referendum 28-29 October 2006, adopted 30 September 2006, effective 8 November 2006; note - proposed amendments to establish a special court for war crimes were defeated in June 2015 by the National Assembly (2015)

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Serbia

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

Suffrage

18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Tomislav NIKOLIC (since 11 June 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Aleksandar VUCIC (since 22 April 2014)

cabinet: Cabinet elected by the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 May 2012 (next to be held in 2017); prime minister elected by the National Assembly

election results: Tomislav NIKOLIC elected president; percent of vote in second round - Tomislav NIKOLIC (SNS) 51.2%, Boris TADIC (NDS-Z) 48.8%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Narodna Skupstina (250 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 16 March 2014 (next to be held by March 2018)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - SNS-led coalition (SNS, SDPS, NS, PS, SPO) 48.4%, SPS/PUPS/JS 13.5%, DS 6.0%, Boris Tadic coalition (SDS, LSV, ZZS, VMDK, ZZV, DLR) 5.7%, DSS 4.2%, Dveri 3.6%, LDP-led coalition (LDP, BDZS, SDU) 3.4%, URS 3.0%, SVM 2.1%, Enough of that 2.1%, SRS 2.0%, SDA 1.0%, PDD .7%, other and invalid 4.3%; seats by party/coalition - SNS-led coalition (SNS, SDPS, NS, PS, SPO) 158, SPS/PUPS/JS 44, DS 19, Boris Tadic coalition (SDS, LSV, ZZS, VMDK, ZZV, DLR) 18, SVM 6, SDA 3, PDD 2

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation (consists of more than 60 judges organized into 3- and 5-member panels for criminal, civil, and administrative cases); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices proposed by the High Judicial Council (HJC), an 11-member body of which 7 are judges, and elected by the National Assembly; Constitutional Court judges appointed - 5 each by the National Assembly, the president, and the Supreme Court of Cassation; judges of both courts appointed to permanent tenure by the HJC

subordinate courts: appellate courts, higher courts, and municipal and district courts; courts of special jurisdiction include the Administrative Court, Appellate Commercial Court, and 2 levels of misdemeanor courts

note: in 2003, specialized panels on war crimes were established within the Serbian court system; the panels have jurisdiction over alleged violations of the Basic Criminal Code and crimes against humanity, international law, and criminal acts as defined by the Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia

Political parties and leaders

Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Istvan PASZTOR]

Democratic Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or VMDK [Aron CSONKA]

Democratic Left of Roma or DLR [Jovan DAMJANOVIC]

Democratic Party of DS [Bojan PAJTIC]

Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Sanda RASKOVIC-IVIC]

Dveri [Bosko OBRADOVIC]

Enough of That [Sasa RADULOVIC]

League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina or LSV [Nenad CANAK]

Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Cedomir JOVANOVIC]

Movement of Socialists or PS [Aleksandar VULIN]

New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC]

Party for Democratic Action or PDD [Riza HALIMI]

Party of Democratic Action of the Sandzak or SDA [Sulejman UGLJANIN]

Party of United Pensioners of Serbia or PUPS [Jovan KRKOBABIC]

Serbian Progressive Party or SNS [Aleksandar VUCIC]

Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ]

Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC]

Social Democratic Party of Serbia or SDPS [Rasim LJAJIC]

Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC]

Together for Serbia or ZZS [Dusan PETROVIC]

Together for Vojvodina or ZZV (dissolved)

United Regions of Serbia or URS (dissolved in 2014)

United Serbia or JS [Dragan "Palma" MARKOVIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Association of Journalists of Serbia or NUNS

Journalists Association of Serbia (Udruzenje novinara Srbije) or UNS

Obraz (Orthodox clero-fascist organization)

SNP 1389 (Serbian nationalist movement)

SNP NASI 1389 (Serbian National Movement NASI)

International organization participation

BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (candidate country), FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Flag description

three equal horizontal stripes of red (top), blue, and white - the Pan-Slav colors representing freedom and revolutionary ideals; charged with the coat of arms of Serbia shifted slightly to the hoist side; the principal field of the coat of arms represents the Serbian state and displays a white two-headed eagle on a red shield; a smaller red shield on the eagle represents the Serbian nation, and is divided into four quarters by a white cross; interpretations vary as to the meaning and origin of the white, curved symbols resembling firesteels or Cyrillic "C's" in each quarter; a royal crown surmounts the coat of arms

note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia

National symbol(s)

double-headed eagle; national colors: red, blue, white

National anthem

name: "Boze pravde" (God of Justice)

lyrics/music: Jovan DORDEVIC/Davorin JENKO

note: adopted 1904; song originally written as part of a play in 1872 and has been used as an anthem by the Serbian people throughout the 20th and 21st centuries

Economy

Economy - overview

Serbia has a transitional economy largely dominated by market forces, but the state sector remains significant in certain areas and many institutional reforms are needed. The economy relies on manufacturing and exports, driven largely by foreign investment. MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of international economic sanctions, civil war, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 left the economy only half the size it was in 1990.

After the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC in September 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on a market reform program. Serbia renewed its membership in the IMF in December 2000 and rejoined the World Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). Serbia has made progress in trade liberalization and enterprise restructuring and privatization, but many large enterprises - including the power utilities, telecommunications company, natural gas company, and others - remain in state hands. Serbia has made some progress towards EU membership, signing a Stabilization and Association Agreement with Brussels in May 2008, and with full implementation of the Interim Trade Agreement with the EU in February 2010, gained candidate status in March 2012. In January 2014, Serbia's EU accession talks officially opened. Serbia's negotiations with the World Trade Organization are advanced, with the country's complete ban on the trade and cultivation of agricultural biotechnology products representing the primary remaining obstacle to accession. Serbia's program with the IMF was frozen in early 2012 because the 2012 budget approved by parliament deviated from the program parameters; the arrangement is now void. In late 2014, Serbia and the IMF announced a tentative plan for a precautionary loan worth approximately $1 billion, but the government will be challenged to implement IMF-mandated reforms—which will target social spending and the large public sector.

High unemployment and stagnant household incomes are ongoing political and economic problems. Structural economic reforms needed to ensure the country's long-term prosperity have largely stalled since the onset of the global financial crisis. Growing budget deficits constrain the use of stimulus efforts to revive the economy and contribute to growing concern of a public debt crisis, given that Serbia's total public debt as a share of GDP more than doubled between 2008 and 2014. Serbia's concerns about inflation and exchange-rate stability preclude the use of expansionary monetary policy. During 2014 the SNS party addressed issues with the fiscal deficit, state-owned enterprises, the labor market, construction permits, bankruptcy and privatization, and other areas.

Major challenges ahead include: high unemployment rates and the need for job creation; high government expenditures for salaries, pensions, healthcare, and unemployment benefits; a growing need for new government borrowing; rising public and private foreign debt; attracting new foreign direct investment; and getting the IMF program back on track. Other serious longer-term challenges include an inefficient judicial system, high levels of corruption, and an aging population. Factors favorable to Serbia's economic growth include its strategic location, a relatively inexpensive and skilled labor force, and free trade agreements with the EU, Russia, Turkey, and countries that are members of the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA).

GDP (purchasing power parity) 82/230

$97.27 billion (2015 est.)

$96.78 billion (2014 est.)

$98.57 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$36.56 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 193/225

0.5% (2015 est.)

-1.8% (2014 est.)

2.6% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 116/230

$13,600 (2015 est.)

$13,500 (2014 est.)

$13,800 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 129/179

13.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

9.6% of GDP (2014 est.)

11.5% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 81%

government consumption: 17.9%

investment in fixed capital: 17.8%

investment in inventories: -10.1%

exports of goods and services: 46%

imports of goods and services: -52.6%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 10.4%

industry: 38.5%

services: 51.1% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

wheat, maize, sunflower, sugar beets, grapes/wine, fruits (raspberries, apples, sour cherries), vegetables (tomatoes, peppers, potatoes), beef, pork, and meat products, milk and dairy products

Industries

automobiles, base metals, furniture, food processing, machinery, chemicals, sugar, tires, clothes, pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate 177/202

-2% (2015 est.)

Labor force 105/233

2.9 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 21.9%

industry: 15.6%

services: 62.5% (2014 est.)

Unemployment rate 166/207

19.3% (2015 est.)

19.7% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

9.2% (2013 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 71/144

38.7 (2014 est.)

28.2 (2008 est.)

Budget

revenues: $14.91 billion

expenditures: $16.4 billion

note: this is the consolidated budget, including both central government and local goverment budgets (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 37/219

40.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 151/220

-4.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 37/176

75% of GDP (2015 est.)

70% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued or owned by government entities other than the treasury (for which the Government of Singapore issued guarantees); the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities (for which the GOS also issued guarantees), as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 107/226

1.9% (2015 est.)

2.1% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 25/156

9.5% (18 March 2014)

11.75% (6 February 2013)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 68/184

12% (31 December 2015 est.)

14.8% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 103/192

$4.282 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$4.332 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 91/193

$18.37 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$18.75 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 85/191

$19.79 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$20.59 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 78/121

$7.696 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$8.1 billion (31 December 2013)

$7.451 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Current account balance 132/197

-$1.468 billion (2015 est.)

-$2.632 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 81/224

$12.8 billion (2015 est.)

$14.22 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

iron and steel, rubber, clothes, wheat, fruit and vegetables, nonferrous metals, electric appliances, metal products, weapons and ammunition, automobiles

Exports - partners

Italy 17.4%, Germany 12%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 8.8%, Russia 7%, Romania 5.6%, Macedonia, The Former Yugo Rep of 4% (2014)

Imports 77/223

$17.21 billion (2015 est.)

$19.56 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - partners

Germany 12%, Russia 11.3%, Italy 11.3%, China 7.6%, Hungary 5%, Poland 4.8% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 74/170

$11.68 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$12.05 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 71/206

$36.09 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$36.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 67/120

$31.21 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

$11.95 billion (2006 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$NA

Exchange rates

Serbian dinars (RSD) per US dollar -

106.6 (2015 est.)

88.41 (2014 est.)

88.41 (2013 est.)

87.99 (2012 est.)

72.45 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 60/220

34.4 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption 65/219

26.91 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports 32/218

4.806 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - imports 35/219

6.864 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 65/214

7.368 million kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 136/214

59.2% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 170/214

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 59/214

40.6% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 115/212

0.2% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Crude oil - production 75/214

16,840 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 179/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - imports 61/214

31,730 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 76/215

77.5 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 77/214

61,590 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 91/212

67,980 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 82/214

12,050 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 112/213

20,080 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Natural gas - production 68/216

562.2 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 78/215

2.43 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 168/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 53/214

1.629 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 64/212

48.14 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 63/212

46 million Mt (2014 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 51/219

total subscriptions: 2.86 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 40 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 89/217

total: 9.3 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 130 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: replacements of, and upgrades to, telecommunications equipment damaged during the 1999 war resulted in a modern digitalized telecommunications system

domestic: wireless service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing very rapidly; best telecommunications services are centered in urban centers; 3G mobile network launched in 2007

international: country code - 381 (2011)

Radio broadcast stations

308 (station frequency types NA) (2009)

Television broadcast stations

138 (2009)

Internet country code

.rs

Internet hosts 44/232

1.102 million (2012)

Internet users 83/217

total: 3.6 million

percent of population: 49.7% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 127/236

26 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 10

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 16

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 10

under 914 m: 5 (2013)

Heliports

2 (2012)

Railways 46/136

total: 3,808 km

standard gauge: 3,808 km 1.435-m gauge (1,196 km electrified) (2014)

Roadways 80/223

total: 44,248 km

paved: 28,000 km

unpaved: 16,248 km (2010)

Waterways 80/107

587 km (primarily on the Danube and Sava rivers) (2009)

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Belgrade (Danube)

Military and Security

Military branches

Serbian Armed Forces (Vojska Srbije, VS): Land Forces Command (includes Riverine Component, consisting of a river flotilla on the Danube), Air and Air Defense Forces Command (2012)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished December 2010; reserve obligation to age 60 for men and age 50 for women (2013)

Military expenditures 36/132

1.44% of GDP (2015 est.)

1.49% of GDP (2014)

1.48% of GDP (2013)

1.77% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Serbia with several other states protest the US and other states' recognition of Kosovo's declaration of its status as a sovereign and independent state in February 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosovo's northern border challenge final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led Kosovo Force peacekeepers under United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo authority continue to keep the peace within Kosovo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority in Kosovo; Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 32,408 (Croatia); 11,325 (Bosnia and Herzegovina) (2014)

IDPs: 97,000 (most are Kosovar Serbs, some are Roma, Ashkalis, and Egyptian (RAE); some RAE IDPs are unregistered) (2015)

stateless persons: 3,578 (includes stateless persons in Kosovo) (2014)

note: 639,152 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2016)

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route; economy vulnerable to money laundering