Singapore

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Singapore was founded as a British trading colony in 1819. It joined the Malaysian Federation in 1963 but was ousted two years later and became independent. Singapore subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest in terms of tonnage handled) and with per capita GDP equal to that of the leading nations of Western Europe.

Geography

Location

Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia

Geographic coordinates

1.22° N, 103.48° E

Area 192/257

total: 697 sq km

land: 687 sq km

water: 10 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

0 km

Coastline

193 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 3 nm

exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial sea, as defined in treaties and practice

Climate

tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - northeastern monsoon (December to March) and southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms

Terrain

lowlying, gently undulating central plateau

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Singapore Strait 0 m

highest point: Bukit Timah 166 m

Natural resources

fish, deepwater ports

Land use

agricultural land: 1%

arable land 0.9%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 0%

forest: 3.3%

other: 95.7% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

NA

Total renewable water resources

0.6 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 0.19 cu km/yr (47%/53%/0%)

per capita: 81.97 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards

NA

Environment - current issues

industrial pollution; limited natural freshwater resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Singaporean(s)

adjective: Singapore

Ethnic groups

Chinese 74.2%, Malay 13.3%, Indian 9.2%, other 3.3% (2013 est.)

Languages

Mandarin (official) 36.3%, English (official) 29.8%, Malay (official) 11.9%, Hokkien 8.1%, Tamil (official) 4.4%, Cantonese 4.1%, Teochew 3.2%, other Indian languages 1.2%, other Chinese dialects 1.1%, other 1.1% (2010 est.)

Religions

Buddhist 33.9%, Muslim 14.3%, Taoist 11.3%, Catholic 7.1%, Hindu 5.2%, other Christian 11%, other 0.7%, none 16.4% (2010 est.)

Population 114/238

5,674,472 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 13.14% (male 381,404/female 364,424)

15-24 years: 17.43% (male 486,979/female 502,159)

25-54 years: 50.39% (male 1,393,686/female 1,465,601)

55-64 years: 10.16% (male 288,489/female 287,992)

65 years and over: 8.88% (male 229,117/female 274,621) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 37.4%

youth dependency ratio: 21.4%

elderly dependency ratio: 16.1%

potential support ratio: 6.2% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 34 years

male: 33.9 years

female: 34.1 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 57/233

1.89% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 219/224

8.27 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 217/225

3.43 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 5/222

14.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 100% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 2.02% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

SINGAPORE (capital) 5.619 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.8 (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 182/184

10 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 221/224

total: 2.48 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 2.65 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 3/224

total population: 84.68 years

male: 82.06 years

female: 87.5 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 224/224

0.81 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Health expenditures 146/191

4.6% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

1.95 physicians/1,000 population (2013)

Hospital bed density

2 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 142/191

6.8% (2014)

Education expenditures 140/173

2.9% of GDP (2013)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 121/134

total: 7%

male: 5.4%

female: 9% (2013)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Singapore

conventional short form: Singapore

local long form: Republic of Singapore

local short form: Singapore

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Singapore

geographic coordinates: 1.17° N, 103.51° E

time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

none

Independence

9 August 1965 (from Malaysian Federation)

National holiday

National Day, 9 August (1965)

Constitution

several previous; latest adopted 22 December 1965; amended many times, last in 2015 (2015)

Legal system

English common law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Singapore

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

21 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch

chief of state: President Tony TAN Keng Yam (since 1 September 2011)

head of government: Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 August 2004); Deputy Prime Ministers TEO Chee Hean (since 1 April 2009) and Tharman SHANMUGARATNAM (since 21 May 2011)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister; Cabinet responsible to Parliament

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a single 6-year term; election last held on 27 August 2011 (next to be held by August 2017); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

election results: Tony TAN Keng Yam elected president; percent of vote - Tony TAN Keng Yam (independent) 35.2% , TAN Cheng Bock (independent) 34.9%, TAN Jee Say (independent) 25%, TAN Kin Lian (PP) 4.9%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament (99 seats; 75 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by majority party bloc vote, 12 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 9 nominated by the president, and 3 appointed from a "national compensatory" list to ensure political diversity; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 11 September 2015 (next to be held in 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party - PAP 69.9%, WP 12.5%, other 17.6%; seats by party - PAP 83, WP 6

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the president or chief justice and 16 justices and organized into an upper tier Appeal Court and a lower tier High Court)

judge selection and term of office: all judges appointed by the president from candidates recommended by the prime minister after consultation with the chief justice; justices appointed for life

subordinate courts: district, magistrates', juvenile, family, community, and coroners' courts; small claims tribunals

Political parties and leaders

National Solidarity Party or NSP [LIM Tean, acting secretary general]

People's Action Party or PAP [LEE Hsien Loong]

Singapore Democratic Party or SDP [CHEE Soon Juan]

Workers' Party or WP [LOW Thia Khiang]

Political pressure groups and leaders

none

International organization participation

ADB, AOSIS, APEC, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN, BIS, C, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle; red denotes brotherhood and equality; white signifies purity and virtue; the waxing crescent moon symbolizes a young nation on the ascendancy; the five stars represent the nation's ideals of democracy, peace, progress, justice, and equality

National symbol(s)

lion, merlion (mythical half lion-half fish creature), orchid; national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "Majulah Singapura" (Onward Singapore)

lyrics/music: ZUBIR Said

note: adopted 1965; first performed in 1958 at the Victoria Theatre, the anthem is sung only in Malay

Economy

Economy - overview

Singapore has a highly developed and successful free-market economy. It enjoys a remarkably open and corruption-free environment, stable prices, and a per capita GDP higher than that of most developed countries. Unemployment is very low. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly of consumer electronics, information technology products, medical and optical devices, pharmaceuticals, and on its vibrant transportation, business, and financial services sectors. The economy contracted 0.6% in 2009 as a result of the global financial crisis, but has continued to grow since 2010 on the strength of renewed exports. Growth in 2014-15 was slower at under 3%, largely a result of soft demand for exports amid a sluggish global economy and weak growth in Singapore’s manufacturing sector. The government is attempting to restructure Singapore’s economy by weaning its dependence on foreign labor, addressing weak productivity, and increasing Singaporean wages. Singapore has attracted major investments in pharmaceuticals and medical technology production and will continue efforts to strengthen its position as Southeast Asia's leading financial and high-tech hub. Singapore is a member of the 12-nation Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade negotiations, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership negotiations with the nine other ASEAN members plus Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea and New Zealand, and in 2015, Singapore will form, with the other ASEAN members, the ASEAN Economic Community.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 41/230

$468.9 billion (2015 est.)

$458.8 billion (2014 est.)

$445.8 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$294 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 135/225

2.2% (2015 est.)

2.9% (2014 est.)

4.4% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 5/230

$85,700 (2015 est.)

$83,900 (2014 est.)

$81,500 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 2/179

47.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

46.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

46.9% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 38.8%

government consumption: 10.1%

investment in fixed capital: 26.2%

investment in inventories: -0.5%

exports of goods and services: 184.3%

imports of goods and services: -158.9%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0%

industry: 23.8%

services: 76.2% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

orchids, vegetables; poultry, eggs; fish, ornamental fish

Industries

electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, life sciences, entrepot trade

Industrial production growth rate 184/202

-3.5% (2015 est.)

Labor force 99/233

3.588 million

note: excludes non-residents (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 1.3%

industry: 14.8%

services: 83.9%

note: excludes non-residents (2014)

Unemployment rate 13/207

2% (2015 est.)

2% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.3%

highest 10%: 11% (2014)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 32/144

46.4 (2014)

46.3 (2013)

Budget

revenues: $44.06 billion

expenditures: $45.48 billion

note: expenditures include both operational and development expenditures (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 192/219

15% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 44/220

-0.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 13/176

105.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

99.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: Singapore's public debt consists largely of Singapore Government Securities (SGS) issued to assist the Central Provident Fund (CPF), which administers Singapore's defined contribution pension fund; special issues of SGS are held by the CPF, and are non-tradable; the government has not borrowed to finance deficit expenditures since the 1980s; Singapore has no external public debt

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 20/226

-0.5% (2015 est.)

1% (2014 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 142/184

5.4% (31 December 2015 est.)

5.35% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 31/192

$114.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$121.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 27/193

$413.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$405.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 26/191

$479.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$458.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 19/121

$787.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$751.1 billion (31 December 2013)

$747.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Current account balance 9/197

$61.19 billion (2015 est.)

$58.77 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 14/224

$384.6 billion (2015 est.)

$437.3 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

machinery and equipment (including electronics and telecommunications), pharmaceuticals and other chemicals, refined petroleum products, foodstuffs and beverages

Exports - partners

China 12.6%, Malaysia 12%, Hong Kong 11%, Indonesia 9.4%, US 5.9%, Japan 4.1%, South Korea 4.1% (2014)

Imports 16/223

$294.2 billion (2015 est.)

$360.9 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs, consumer goods

Imports - partners

China 12.1%, Malaysia 10.7%, US 10.3%, South Korea 5.9%, Japan 5.5%, Indonesia 5.1%, UAE 4.2%, Saudi Arabia 4% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 12/170

$262 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$256.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 15/206

$1.33 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

$1.323 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 11/120

$981.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$912.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 16/105

$614 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$576.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

Singapore dollars (SGD) per US dollar -

1.38 (2015 est.)

1.27 (2014 est.)

1.27 (2013 est.)

1.25 (2012 est.)

1.26 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 54/220

49.31 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption 50/219

47.18 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports 196/218

0 kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - imports 202/219

0 kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 54/214

10.75 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 68/214

95.3% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 181/214

0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 202/214

0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 63/212

3.9% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Crude oil - production 191/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 69/214

5,900 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 13/214

976,100 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 191/215

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 21/214

1.099 million bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 17/212

1.24 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 5/214

1.685 million bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 2/213

1.914 million bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 128/216

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 47/215

9.62 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 181/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 27/214

9.62 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 195/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 29/212

208 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 58/219

total subscriptions: 1.96 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 35 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 92/217

total: 8.7 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 157 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: excellent service

domestic: excellent domestic facilities; launched 3G wireless service in February 2005; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity more than 180 telephones per 100 persons; multiple providers of high-speed Internet connectivity and the government is close to completing an island-wide roll out of a high-speed fiber-optic broadband network

international: country code - 65; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 4; supplemented by VSAT coverage (2011)

Broadcast media

state controls broadcast media; 8 domestic TV stations operated by MediaCorp which is wholly owned by a state investment company; broadcasts from Malaysian and Indonesian stations available; satellite dishes banned; multi-channel cable TV service available; a total of 18 domestic radio stations broadcasting with MediaCorp operating more than a dozen and another 4 stations are closely linked to the ruling party or controlled by the Singapore Armed Forces Reservists Association; many Malaysian and Indonesian radio stations are available

Radio broadcast stations

AM 0, FM 19, shortwave 1 (2008)

Television broadcast stations

1 (broadcasting on 8 channels); additional reception of numerous UHF and VHF signals originating in Malaysia and Indonesia (2008)

Internet country code

.sg

Internet hosts 39/232

1.96 million (2012)

Internet users 73/217

total: 4.5 million

percent of population: 80.7% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 158/236

9 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 9

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 122 km; refined products 8 km (2013)

Roadways 164/223

total: 3,425 km

paved: 3,425 km (includes 161 km of expressways) (2012)

Merchant marine 6/156

total: 1,599

by type: bulk carrier 247, cargo 109, carrier 6, chemical tanker 256, container 339, liquefied gas 131, petroleum tanker 436, refrigerated cargo 13, roll on/roll off 5, vehicle carrier 57

foreign-owned: 966 (Australia 12, Bangladesh 1, Belgium 1, Bermuda 25, Brazil 9, Chile 6, China 29, Cyprus 6, Denmark 149, France 3, Germany 32, Greece 22, Hong Kong 46, India 21, Indonesia 60, Italy 5, Japan 164, Malaysia 27, Netherlands 1, Norway 153, Russia 2, South Africa 13, South Korea 3, Sweden 11, Switzerland 3, Taiwan 77, Thailand 33, UAE 10, UK 6, US 36)

registered in other countries: 344 (Australia 2, Bahamas 7, Bangladesh 7, Belize 4, Cambodia 3, Cyprus 1, France 3, Honduras 11, Hong Kong 13, Indonesia 46, Italy 1, Kiribati 9, Liberia 22, Malaysia 13, Maldives 4, Malta 4, Marshall Islands 30, Mongolia 3, North Korea 1, Panama 92, Philippines 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 10, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5, Sierra Leone 9, Thailand 1, Tuvalu 19, US 16, Vanuatu 2, unknown 5) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Singapore

container port(s) (TEUs): Singapore (31,649,400)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Singapore

Military and Security

Military branches

Singapore Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (includes Air Defense) (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18-21 years of age for male compulsory military service; 16 1/2 years of age for volunteers; 2-year conscript service obligation, with a reserve obligation to age 40 (enlisted) or age 50 (officers) (2012)

Military expenditures 15/132

3.52% of GDP (2012)

3.47% of GDP (2011)

3.52% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

disputes persist with Malaysia over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's extensive land reclamation works, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in 2008, ICJ awarded sovereignty of Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh/Horsburgh Island) to Singapore, and Middle Rocks to Malaysia, but did not rule on maritime regimes, boundaries, or disposition of South Ledge; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait

Illicit drugs

drug abuse limited because of aggressive law enforcement efforts, including carrying out death sentences; as a transportation and financial services hub, Singapore is vulnerable, despite strict laws and enforcement, as a venue for money laundering