Slovakia

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Slovakia's roots can be traced to the 9th century state of Great Moravia. Subsequently, the Slovaks became part of the Hungarian Kingdom, where they remained for the next 1,000 years. Following the formation of the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1867, language and education policies favoring the use of Hungarian (Magyarization) resulted in a strengthening of Slovak nationalism and a cultivation of cultural ties with the closely related Czechs, who were under Austrian rule. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I, the Slovaks joined the Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar period, Slovak nationalist leaders pushed for autonomy within Czechoslovakia, and in 1939 Slovakia became an independent state allied with Nazi Germany. Following World War II, Czechoslovakia was reconstituted and came under communist rule within Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize communist rule and create "socialism with a human face," ushering in a period of repression known as "normalization." The peaceful "Velvet Revolution" swept the Communist Party from power at the end of 1989 and inaugurated a return to democratic rule and a market economy. On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a nonviolent "velvet divorce" into its two national components, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Slovakia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004 and the euro zone on 1 January 2009.

Geography

Location

Central Europe, south of Poland

Geographic coordinates

48.40° N, 19.30° E

Area 131/257

total: 49,035 sq km

land: 48,105 sq km

water: 930 sq km

Area - comparative

about twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries

total: 1,611 km

border countries (5): Austria 105 km, Czech Republic 241 km, Hungary 627 km, Poland 541 km, Ukraine 97 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain

rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m

highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m

Natural resources

lignite, small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 40.1%

arable land 28.9%; permanent crops 0.4%; permanent pasture 10.8%

forest: 40.2%

other: 19.7% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

1,720 sq km (2007)

Total renewable water resources

50.1 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 0.69 cu km/yr (47%/51%/3%)

per capita: 126.7 cu m/yr (2010)

Natural hazards

NA

Environment - current issues

air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Slovak(s)

adjective: Slovak

Ethnic groups

Slovak 80.7%, Hungarian 8.5%, Roma 2%, other and unspecified 8.8% (2011 est.)

Languages

Slovak (official) 78.6%, Hungarian 9.4%, Roma 2.3%, Ruthenian 1%, other or unspecified 8.8% (2011 est.)

Religions

Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 8.2%, Greek Catholic 3.8%, other or unspecified 12.5%, none 13.4% (2011 est.)

Population 118/238

5,445,027 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.14% (male 422,297/female 402,154)

15-24 years: 11.78% (male 330,116/female 311,144)

25-54 years: 45.17% (male 1,241,594/female 1,217,885)

55-64 years: 13.56% (male 349,304/female 388,904)

65 years and over: 14.35% (male 299,097/female 482,532) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 40.8%

youth dependency ratio: 21.3%

elderly dependency ratio: 19.5%

potential support ratio: 5.1% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 39.6 years

male: 37.9 years

female: 41.4 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 191/233

0.02% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 195/224

9.91 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 49/225

9.74 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 76/222

0.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 53.6% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: -0.31% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

BRATISLAVA (capital) 401,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

27.8 (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 172/184

6 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 175/224

total: 5.27 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 5.91 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 77/224

total population: 76.88 years

male: 73.3 years

female: 80.71 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 212/224

1.39 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Health expenditures 62/191

8.2% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

3.32 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density

6 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 99.4% of population

rural: 98.2% of population

total: 98.8% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0.6% of population

rural: 1.8% of population

total: 1.2% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.02% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

less than 100 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 54/191

27.4% (2014)

Education expenditures 103/173

4.1% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 14 years

female: 16 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 21/134

total: 33.6%

male: 34.9%

female: 31.6% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Slovak Republic

conventional short form: Slovakia

local long form: Slovenska republika

local short form: Slovensko

Government type

parliamentary democracy

Capital

name: Bratislava

geographic coordinates: 48.09° N, 17.07° E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC,. during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky, Trenciansky, Trnavsky, Zilinsky

Independence

1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)

National holiday

Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)

Constitution

several previous (preindependence); latest passed by legislature 1 September 1992, signed 3 September 1992, effective 1 October 1992; amended several times, last in 2014; note - an amendment passed by the National Council failed in a national referendum held in early 2015 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; note - legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Slovakia

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Andrej KISKA (since 15 June 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Robert FICO (since 4 April 2012); Deputy Prime Ministers Robert KALINAK, Peter KAZIMIR, Miroslav LAJCAK (since 4 April 2012), Lubomir VAZNY (since 26 November 2012)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held in 2 rounds on 15 and 29 March 2014 (next to be held in March 2019); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results: Andrej KISKA elected president; percent of vote in second round - Andrej KISKA (independent) 59.4%, Robert FICO (Smer-SD) 40.6%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Council or Narodna Rada (150 seats; members directly elected in a single national constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 10 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2016)

election results: percent of vote by party - Smer-SD 44.4%, KDH 8.8%, OLaNO 8.6%, Most-Hid 6.9%, SDKU-DS 6.1%, SaS 5.9%, other 19.3%; seats by party - Smer-SD 83, KDH 16, OLaNO 16, Most-Hid 13, SDKU-DS 11, SaS 11

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic (consists of 84 judges - as of 2015 - organized into criminal, civil, commercial, and administrative divisions with 3- and 5-judge panels; Constitutional Court (consists of 13 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judge candidates proposed by the Judicial Council of the Slovak Republic, a 17-member independent body to include the Supreme Court chief justice and presidential and governmental appointees; judges appointed by the president for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the National Council of the Republic and appointed by the president; judges appointed for 12-year terms

subordinate courts: regional and district civil courts; Higher Military Court; military district courts; Court of Audit

Political parties and leaders

parties in the Parliament:

Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Jan FIGEL]

Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO]

Most-Hid or Bridge [Bela BUGAR]

Ordinary People and Independent Personalities or OLaNO [Igor MATOVIC]

selected parties outside the Parliament:

Civic Conservative Party or OKS [Ondrej DOSTAL]

Freedom and Solidarity or SaS [Richard SULIK]

Nation and Justice - Our Party or NAS [Anna BELOUSOVOVA]

Network or Siet [Radoslav PROCHAZKA]

New Majority or NOVA [Daniel LIPSIC]

Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Jozsef BERENYI]

People's Party - Our Slovakia or LSNS [Marian KOTLEBA]

Slovak Democratic and Christian Union-Democratic Party or SDKU-DS [Pavol FRESO]

Slovak National Party or SNS [Andrej DANKO]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS

Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ

Entrepreneurs Association of Slovakia or ZPS

Federation of Employers' Associations of the Slovak Republic or AZZZ

Medical Trade Association or LOZ

National Union of Employers or RUZ

Slovak Chamber of Commerce and Industry or SOPK

The Business Alliance of Slovakia or PAS

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red derive from the Pan-Slav colors; the Slovakian coat of arms (consisting of a red shield bordered in white and bearing a white double-barred cross of St. Cyril and St. Methodius surmounting three blue hills) is centered over the bands but offset slightly to the hoist side

note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia

National symbol(s)

double-barred cross (Cross of St. Cyril and St. Methodius) surmounting three peaks; national colors: white, blue, red

National anthem

name: "Nad Tatrou sa blyska" (Lightning Over the Tatras)

lyrics/music: Janko MATUSKA/traditional

note: adopted 1993, in use since 1844; music based on the Slovak folk song "Kopala studienku"

Economy

Economy - overview

Slovakia has made significant economic reforms since its separation from the Czech Republic in 1993. With a population of 5.4 million, the Slovak Republic has a small, open economy, with exports, at about 92% of GDP, serving as the main driver of GDP growth. Slovakia joined the European Union (EU) in 2004 and the Eurozone in 2009. The country’s banking sector is sound. Slovakia has led the region garnering FDI, because of its relatively low-cost, highly-skilled labor force, reasonable tax rates, and favorable geographic location in the heart of Central Europe. However, recent increases in corporate taxes, as well as changes to the Labor Code, slow dispute resolution, and ongoing corruption potentially threaten the attractiveness of the Slovak market. Moreover, the energy sector is characterized by high costs, unpredictable regulatory oversight, and growing government interference.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 72/230

$159.6 billion (2015 est.)

$154.7 billion (2014 est.)

$151.1 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$86.2 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 95/225

3.2% (2015 est.)

2.4% (2014 est.)

1.4% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 61/230

$29,500 (2015 est.)

$28,600 (2014 est.)

$27,900 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 77/179

21.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

21% of GDP (2014 est.)

22.2% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 56.8%

government consumption: 18.2%

investment in fixed capital: 22.2%

investment in inventories: -0.5%

exports of goods and services: 101.2%

imports of goods and services: -97.9%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3.4%

industry: 30.4%

services: 66.2% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products

Industries

automobiles; metal and metal products; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals, synthetic fibers, wood and paper products; machinery; earthenware and ceramics; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products; food and beverages; pharmaceutical

Industrial production growth rate 39/202

4.5% (2015 est.)

Labor force 109/233

2.729 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 3.5%

industry: 25.9%

services: 70.6% (2014)

Unemployment rate 121/207

10.9% (2015 est.)

12.8% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

20.5% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 4.4%

highest 10%: 26% (2013 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 138/144

25.3 (2012)

25.7 (2011)

Budget

revenues: $32.66 billion

expenditures: $35.71 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 49/219

37.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 129/220

-3.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 71/176

53.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

53.6% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: data cover general Government Gross Debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by Government entities, including sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government, and social security funds.

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 28/226

-0.2% (2015 est.)

-0.1% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 143/156

0.05% (10 September 2014)

0.3% (13 November 2013)

note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks from the euro area; Slovakia became a member of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) on 1 January 2009

Commercial bank prime lending rate 167/184

3.2% (31 December 2015 est.)

3.2% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 56/192

$38.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$41.69 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money 64/193

$64.13 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$62.69 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 58/191

$60.61 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$65.76 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 86/121

$5.172 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$4.04 billion (31 December 2013)

$4.611 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Current account balance 50/197

$123 million (2015 est.)

$50 million (2014 est.)

Exports 41/224

$74.06 billion (2015 est.)

$76.07 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

vehicles and related parts 25%, machinery and electrical equipment 21%, nuclear reactors and furnaces 12%, iron and steel 5%, mineral oils and fuels 5% (2014 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 23.3%, Czech Republic 13.6%, Poland 8.8%, Hungary 6.6%, Austria 6.5%, UK 5.4%, France 5.2%, Italy 4.8% (2014)

Imports 39/223

$70.82 billion (2015 est.)

$72.01 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and electrical equipment 19%, vehicles and related parts 13%, nuclear reactors and furnaces 12%, fuel and mineral oils 11% (2014 est.)

Imports - partners

Germany 19%, Czech Republic 16.9%, Austria 9.3%, Russia 7.9%, Poland 6.2%, Hungary 6.2%, South Korea 4.2%, China 4% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 108/170

$2.798 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.614 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 55/206

$82.29 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$82.37 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 53/120

$63.27 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$60.67 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 59/105

$10.63 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$10.43 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.89 (2015 est.)

0.75 (2014 est.)

0.76 (2013 est.)

0.78 (2012 est.)

0.72 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 67/220

28.59 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - consumption 62/219

28.68 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - exports 17/218

11.86 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - imports 13/219

12.93 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 62/214

8.074 million kW (2013 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 169/214

38.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 8/214

21.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 94/214

19.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 40/212

9.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 98/214

200 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 89/214

185.8 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 42/214

117,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 93/215

9 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 66/214

137,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 86/212

73,320 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 48/214

84,830 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 100/213

24,940 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 82/216

100 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 64/215

4.014 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 49/215

3 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 34/214

4.236 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 79/212

14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 76/212

29.27 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 80/219

total subscriptions: 920,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 108/217

total: 6.4 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 117 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: a modern telecommunications system that has expanded dramatically in recent years with the growth of cellular services

domestic: analog system is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; 3 companies provide nationwide cellular services

international: country code - 421; 3 international exchanges (1 in Bratislava and 2 in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services (2011)

Broadcast media

state-owned public broadcaster, Radio and Television of Slovakia (RTVS), operates 3 national TV stations and multiple national and regional radio networks; roughly 35 privately owned TV stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 40% of households are connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; more than 20 privately owned radio stations (2008)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 1, FM 22, shortwave 1 (2008)

Television broadcast stations

37 (2008)

Internet country code

.sk

Internet hosts 41/232

1.384 million (2012)

Internet users 72/217

total: 4.5 million

percent of population: 82.7% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 111/236

35 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 21

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 11 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 14

914 to 1,523 m: 9

under 914 m: 5 (2013)

Heliports

1 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 6,774 km; oil 419 km (2013)

Railways 49/136

total: 3,624 km

broad gauge: 99 km 1.520-m gauge

standard gauge: 3,475 km 1.435-m gauge (1,616 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 50 km 1.000-m or 0.750-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 82/223

total: 54,869 km (includes local roads, national roads, and 420 km of highways) (2012)

Waterways 99/107

172 km (on Danube River) (2012)

Merchant marine 112/156

total: 11

by type: cargo 9, refrigerated cargo 2

foreign-owned: 11 (Germany 3, Ireland 1, Italy 2, Montenegro 1, Slovenia 1, Turkey 1, Ukraine 2) (2010)

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Bratislava, Komarno (Danube)

Military and Security

Military branches

Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic (Ozbrojene Sily Slovenskej Republiky): Land Forces (Pozemne Sily), Air Forces (Vzdusne Sily) (2010)

Military service age and obligation

18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription in peacetime suspended in 2006; women are eligible to serve (2012)

Military expenditures 89/132

1.02% of GDP (2014)

1% of GDP (2013)

1.12% of GDP (2012)

1.1% of GDP (2011)

1.12% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

bilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continued in 2006 between Slovakia and Hungary over Hungary's completion of its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovakia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 1,523 (2014)

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market; consumer of ecstasy