Slovenia

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The Slovene lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latter's dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918, the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new multinational state, which was named Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia, which though communist, distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power by the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war. Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy have assisted in Slovenia's transformation to a modern state. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004; it joined the euro zone in 2007.

Geography

Location

south Central Europe, Julian Alps between Austria and Croatia

Geographic coordinates

46.07° N, 14.49° E

Area 155/257

total: 20,273 sq km

land: 20,151 sq km

water: 122 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries

total: 1,211 km

border countries (4): Austria 299 km, Croatia 600 km, Hungary 94 km, Italy 218 km

Coastline

46.6 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate

Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east

Terrain

a short southwestern coastal strip of Karst topography on the Adriatic; an alpine mountain region lies adjacent to Italy and Austria in the north; mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point: Triglav 2,864 m

Natural resources

lignite, lead, zinc, building stone, hydropower, forests

Land use

agricultural land: 22.8%

arable land 8.4%; permanent crops 1.3%; permanent pasture 13.1%

forest: 62.3%

other: 14.9% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

76.04 sq km (2010)

Total renewable water resources

31.87 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 0.94 cu km/yr (18%/82%/0%)

per capita: 462.9 cu m/yr (2009)

Natural hazards

flooding; earthquakes

Environment - current issues

Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage from urban air pollution and resulting acid rain

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Slovene(s)

adjective: Slovenian

Ethnic groups

Slovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Croat 1.8%, Bosniak 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 census)

Languages

Slovenian (official) 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4%, Italian (official, only in municipalities where Italian national communities reside), Hungarian (official, only in municipalities where Hungarian national communities reside) (2002 census)

Religions

Catholic 57.8%, Muslim 2.4%, Orthodox 2.3%, other Christian 0.9%, unaffiliated 3.5%, other or unspecified 23%, none 10.1% (2002 census)

Population 148/238

1,983,412 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 13.38% (male 136,839/female 128,560)

15-24 years: 9.76% (male 99,207/female 94,471)

25-54 years: 43.65% (male 437,238/female 428,439)

55-64 years: 14.81% (male 144,737/female 148,929)

65 years and over: 18.4% (male 147,745/female 217,247) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 48.7%

youth dependency ratio: 22%

elderly dependency ratio: 26.7%

potential support ratio: 3.7% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 43.8 years

male: 42.1 years

female: 45.6 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 217/233

-0.26% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 218/224

8.42 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 31/225

11.37 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 74/222

0.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 49.6% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 0.08% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

LJUBLJANA (capital) 279,000 (2014)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

28.8 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 150/184

9 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 192/224

total: 4 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.51 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 61/224

total population: 78.01 years

male: 74.4 years

female: 81.86 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 214/224

1.34 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Health expenditures 43/191

9.2% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

2.54 physicians/1,000 population (2010)

Hospital bed density

4.6 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 99.7% of population

rural: 99.4% of population

total: 99.5% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0.3% of population

rural: 0.6% of population

total: 0.5% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 99.1% of population

rural: 99.1% of population

total: 99.1% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0.9% of population

rural: 0.9% of population

total: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.08% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

900 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

less than 100 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 33/191

27.4% (2014)

Education expenditures 51/173

5.7% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 17 years

male: 16 years

female: 18 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 54/134

total: 21.6%

male: 20.1%

female: 23.7% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia

conventional short form: Slovenia

local long form: Republika Slovenija

local short form: Slovenija

former: People's Republic of Slovenia, Socialist Republic of Slovenia

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Ljubljana

geographic coordinates: 46.03° N, 14.31° E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

200 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 11 urban municipalities (mestne obcine, singular - mestna obcina)

municipalities: Ajdovscina, Apace, Beltinci, Benedikt, Bistrica ob Sotli, Bled, Bloke, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Braslovce, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Cerkvenjak, Cirkulane, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik, Divaca, Dobje, Dobrepolje, Dobrna, Dobrova-Polhov Gradec, Dobrovnik/Dobronak, Dolenjske Toplice, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gorje, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grad, Grosuplje, Hajdina, Hoce-Slivnica, Hodos, Horjul, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola/Isola, Jesenice, Jezersko, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Komenda, Kosanjevica na Krki, Kostel, Kozje, Kranjska Gora, Krizevci, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava/Lendva, Litija, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Log-Dragomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Lovrenc na Pohorju, Luce, Lukovica,

Majsperk, Makole, Markovci, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miklavz na Dravskem Polju, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mirna, Mirna Pec, Mislinja, Mokronog-Trebelno, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Odranci, Oplotnica, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran/Pirano, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podlehnik, Podvelka, Poljcane, Polzela, Postojna, Prebold, Preddvor, Prevalje, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroskem, Razkrizje, Recica ob Savinji, Rence-Vogrsko, Ribnica, Ribnica na Pohorju, Rogaska Slatina, Rogasovci, Rogatec, Ruse, Selnica ob Dravi, Semic, Sevnica, Sezana, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Sodrazica, Solcava, Sredisce ob Dravi, Starse, Straza, Sveta Ana, Sveta Trojica v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Jurij ob Scavnici, Sveti Jurij v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Tomaz, Salovci, Sempeter-Vrtojba, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur, Sentrupert, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smarjeske Toplice, Smartno ob Paki, Smartno pri Litiji, Sostanj, Store, Tabor, Tisina, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trnovska Vas, Trzic, Trzin, Turnisce, Velika Polana, Velike Lasce, Verzej, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice, Vojnik, Vransko, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Zetale, Ziri, Zirovnica, Zrece, Zuzemberk

urban municipalities: Celje, Koper-Capodistria, Kranj, Ljubljana, Maribor, Murska Sobota, Nova Gorica, Novo Mesto, Ptuj, Slovenj Gradec, Velenje

Independence

25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday

Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)

Constitution

previous 1974 (preindependence); latest passed by legislature 23 December 1991; amended several times, last in 2015 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Slovenia; both parents if the child is born outside of Slovenia

dual citizenship recognized: yes, for select cases

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years, the last 5 of which have been continuous

Suffrage

18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Borut PAHOR (since 22 December 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Miro CERAR (since 18 September 2014)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 November 2012 with a runoff on 2 December 2012 (next to be held in 2017); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually nominated prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly

election results: Borut PAHOR elected president; percent of vote in second round - Borut PAHOR (SD) 67.4%, Danilo TURK (independent) 32.6%; note - a snap election was held in July 2014 following the resignation of Prime Minister Alenka BRATUSEK in May 2014, Miro CERAR (SMC) elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 57 to 11

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of the National Council or Drzavni Svet (40 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats; 88 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 directly elected in special constituencies for Italian and Hungarian minorities by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms); note - the National Council is primarily an advisory body with limited legislative powers

elections: National Assembly - last held on 13 July 2014 (next to be held in 2018)

election results: percent of vote by party - SMC 34.6%, SDS 20.7%, DeSUS 10.2%, ZL 6%, SD 6%, NSi 5.6%, ZaAB 4.3%, other 12.6%; seats by party - SMC 36, SDS 21, DeSUS 10, ZL 6, SD 6, NSi, 5, ZaAB 4, Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and 37 judges organized into 7 departments - civil, criminal, commercial, labor and social security, administrative, registry, and international cooperation); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 7 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and vice president appointed by the National Assembly upon the proposal of the Minister of Justice based on the opinions of the Judicial Council, an 11-member independent body elected by the National Assembly from proposals submitted by the president, attorneys, law universities, and sitting judges; other Supreme Court judges elected by the National Assembly from candidates proposed by the Judicial Council; Supreme Court judge term NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly from nominations by the president of the republic; Constitutional Court president selected from among their own for a 3-year term; other judges elected for single 9-year terms

subordinate courts: county, district, regional, and high courts; specialized labor-related and social courts; Court of Audit; Administrative Court

Political parties and leaders

Alliance of Alenka Bratusek or ZaAB [Alenka BRATUSEK]

Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia or DeSUS [Karl ERJAVEC]

Modern Center Pary or SMC [Miro CERAR]

New Slovenia or NSi [Ljudmila NOVAK]

Slovenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA]

Social Democrats or SD [Dejan ZIDAN]

United Left or ZL (collective leadership)

Political pressure groups and leaders

Catholic Church

other: various trade and public sector employee unions

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, derive from the medieval coat of arms of the Duchy of Carniola; the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav, Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and above it are three six-pointed stars arranged in an inverted triangle, which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the great Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries) appears in the upper hoist side of the flag centered on the white and blue bands

National symbol(s)

Mount Triglav; national colors: white, blue, red

National anthem

name: "Zdravljica" (A Toast)

lyrics/music: France PRESEREN/Stanko PREMRL

note: adopted 1989; originally written in 1848; the full poem, whose seventh verse is used as the anthem, speaks of pan-Slavic nationalism

Economy

Economy - overview

With excellent infrastructure, a well-educated work force, and a strategic location between the Balkans and Western Europe, Slovenia has one of the highest per capita GDPs in Central Europe, despite having suffered a protracted recession in 2008-2009 in the wake of the global financial crisis. Slovenia became the first 2004 European Union entrant to adopt the euro (on 1 January 2007) and has experienced one of the most stable political transitions in Central and Southeastern Europe.

In March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank. In 2007, Slovenia was invited to begin the process for joining the OECD; it became a member in 2012. However, long-delayed privatizations, particularly within Slovenia’s largely state-owned and increasingly indebted banking sector, have fueled investor concerns since 2012 that the country would need EU-IMF financial assistance. In 2013, the European Commission granted Slovenia permission to begin recapitalizing ailing lenders and transferring their nonperforming assets into a “bad bank” established to restore bank balance sheets. Export-led growth fueled by demand in larger European markets pushed GDP growth to 3.0% in 2014, while stubbornly-high unemployment fell slightly to 12%.

PM CERAR’s government took office in September 2014, pledging to press ahead with commitments to privatize a select group of state-run companies, rationalize public spending, and further stabilize the banking sector.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 100/230

$63.6 billion (2015 est.)

$62.16 billion (2014 est.)

$60.32 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$42.74 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 130/225

2.3% (2015 est.)

3% (2014 est.)

-1.1% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 58/230

$30,900 (2015 est.)

$30,200 (2014 est.)

$29,300 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 38/179

26.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

26.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

25% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 53.6%

government consumption: 18.8%

investment in fixed capital: 20.2%

investment in inventories: 0.5%

exports of goods and services: 82.6%

imports of goods and services: -75.7%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.2%

industry: 33.4%

services: 64.4% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

hops, wheat, coffee,, corn, apples, pears; cattle, sheep, poultry

Industries

ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting; electronics (including military electronics), trucks, automobiles, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools

Industrial production growth rate 35/202

4.9% (2015 est.)

Labor force 148/233

916,000 (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 8.3%

industry: 30.8%

services: 60.9% (2009)

Unemployment rate 130/207

12% (2015 est.)

13.1% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

13.5% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.7%

highest 10%: 21.1% (2011)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 144/144

23.7 (2012)

23.8 (2005)

Budget

revenues: $17.38 billion

expenditures: $18.59 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 40/219

40.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 52/220

-1% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 57/176

62.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

60.9% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 22/226

-0.4% (2015 est.)

0.4% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 133/156

0.3% (31 December 2013)

0.75% (31 December 2012)

note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate 137/184

5.5% (31 December 2015 est.)

5.02% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 73/192

$11.82 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$12.85 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money 80/193

$26.11 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$25.92 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 79/191

$25.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$31.08 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 83/121

$6.87 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

$6.31 billion (31 December 2012)

$6.783 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Current account balance 31/197

$2.869 billion (2015 est.)

$3.464 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 65/224

$28.09 billion (2015 est.)

$30.55 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food

Exports - partners

Germany 19%, Italy 11.2%, Austria 8.7%, Croatia 6.6%, Hungary 4.4%, France 4.4%, Russia 4.1%, Slovakia 4.1% (2014)

Imports 66/223

$27.1 billion (2015 est.)

$28.94 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, food

Imports - partners

Germany 16.2%, Italy 14.4%, Austria 10.3%, South Korea 4.6%, China 4.4%, Croatia 4.3%, Hungary 4.1% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 135/170

$961.8 million (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.016 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 63/206

$56.11 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$55.45 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 85/120

$15.83 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$14.73 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 62/105

$7.958 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$8.178 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.89 (2015 est.)

0.75 (2014 est.)

0.76 (2013 est.)

0.78 (2012 est.)

0.72 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 85/220

14.81 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 81/219

13.02 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 23/218

8.684 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 32/219

7.522 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 89/214

3.353 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 173/214

34.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 3/214

33.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 78/214

29.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 71/212

3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 101/214

5 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 188/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 124/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 189/215

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 130/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 101/212

49,100 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 81/214

13,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 67/213

65,660 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 95/216

3 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 94/215

770 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 179/215

0 cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 62/214

767 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 193/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 90/212

15.87 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 88/219

total subscriptions: 770,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 39 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 149/217

total: 2.3 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 117 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: well-developed telecommunications infrastructure

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 150 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 386 (2011)

Broadcast media

public TV broadcaster, Radiotelevizija Slovenija (RTV), operates a system of national and regional TV stations; 35 domestic commercial TV stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 60% of households are connected to multi-channel cable TV; public radio broadcaster operates 3 national and 4 regional stations; more than 75 regional and local commercial and non-commercial radio stations (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 10, FM 230, shortwave 0 (2006)

Television broadcast stations

31 (2006)

Internet country code

.si

Internet hosts 54/232

415,581 (2012)

Internet users 115/217

total: 1.4 million

percent of population: 72.3% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 143/236

16 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 7

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 5 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 844 km; oil 5 km (2013)

Railways 84/136

total: 1,229 km

standard gauge: 1,229 km 1.435-m gauge (503 km electrified) (2014)

Roadways 91/223

total: 38,985 km

paved: 38,985 km (includes 769 km of expressways) (2012)

Waterways

(some transport on the Drava River) (2012)

Merchant marine 90/156

registered in other countries: 24 (Cyprus 5, Liberia 7, Malta 4, Marshall Islands 6, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Slovakia 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Koper

Military and Security

Military branches

Slovenian Armed Forces (Slovenska Vojska, SV): Forces Command (with ground units, naval element, air and air defense brigade); Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief (ACPDR) (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2003 (2012)

Military expenditures 85/132

1.18% of GDP (2012)

1.32% of GDP (2011)

1.18% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Pirin Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led to Slovenia lifting its objections to Croatia joining the EU; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovenia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia; Slovenia continues to impose a hard border Schengen regime with Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 but has not yet fulfilled Schengen requirements

Refugees and internally displaced persons

note: 443,711 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2016)

Illicit drugs

minor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals