Spain

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Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World War I and II but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). A peaceful transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO in 1975, and rapid economic modernization (Spain joined the EU in 1986) gave Spain a dynamic and rapidly growing economy and made it a global champion of freedom and human rights. More recently the government has focused on measures to reverse a severe economic recession that began in mid-2008. Austerity measures implemented to reduce a large budget deficit and reassure foreign investors have led to one of the highest unemployment rates in Europe. Spain assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2015-16 term.

Geography

Location

Southwestern Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Bay of Biscay, and Pyrenees Mountains; southwest of France

Geographic coordinates

40.00° N, 4.00° W

Area 52/257

total: 505,370 sq km

land: 498,980 sq km

water: 6,390 sq km

note: there are two autonomous cities - Ceuta and Melilla - and 17 autonomous communities including Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and three small Spanish possessions off the coast of Morocco - Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera

Area - comparative

almost five times the size of Kentucky; slightly more than twice the size of Oregon

Land boundaries

total: 1,952.7 km

border countries (5): Andorra 63 km, France 646 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,224 km, Morocco (Ceuta) 8 km, Morocco (Melilla) 10.5 km

note: an additional 75-meter border segment exists between Morocco and the Spanish exclave of Penon de Velez de la Gomera

Coastline

4,964 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (applies only to the Atlantic Ocean)

Climate

temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast

Terrain

large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees Mountains in north

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands 3,718 m

Natural resources

coal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 54.1%

arable land 24.9%; permanent crops 9.1%; permanent pasture 20.1%

forest: 36.8%

other: 9.1% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

34,700 sq km (2011)

Total renewable water resources

111.5 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 32.46 cu km/yr (18%/22%/61%)

per capita: 698.7 cu m/yr (2008)

Natural hazards

periodic droughts, occasional flooding

volcanism: volcanic activity in the Canary Islands, located off Africa's northwest coast; Teide (elev. 3,715 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; La Palma (elev. 2,426 m), which last erupted in 1971, is the most active of the Canary Islands volcanoes; Lanzarote is the only other historically active volcano

Environment - current issues

pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note

strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar; Spain controls a number of territories in northern Morocco including the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Spaniard(s)

adjective: Spanish

Ethnic groups

composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types

Languages

Castilian Spanish (official) 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, and Basque 2%

note: Catalan is official in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and the Valencian Community (where it is known as Valencian); in the northwest corner of Catalonia (Vall d'Aran), Aranese is official along with Catalan; Galician is official in Galicia; Basque is official in the Basque Country and in the Basque-speaking area of Navarre; Aragonese, Aranese Asturian, Basque, Calo, Catalan, Galician, and Valencian are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

Religions

Roman Catholic 94%, other 6%

Population 29/238

48,146,134 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.45% (male 3,827,552/female 3,610,910)

15-24 years: 9.56% (male 2,379,676/female 2,223,159)

25-54 years: 45.57% (male 11,180,532/female 10,762,002)

55-64 years: 11.67% (male 2,738,802/female 2,877,648)

65 years and over: 17.75% (male 3,642,559/female 4,903,294) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 50.8%

youth dependency ratio: 22.4%

elderly dependency ratio: 28.3%

potential support ratio: 3.5% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 42 years

male: 40.8 years

female: 43.2 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 127/233

0.89% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 201/224

9.64 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 68/225

9.04 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 13/222

8.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 79.6% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 0.52% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

MADRID (capital) 6.199 million; Barcelona 5.258 million; Valencia 810,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.8 (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 170/184

5 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 211/224

total: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.63 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 21/224

total population: 81.57 years

male: 78.57 years

female: 84.77 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 197/224

1.49 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

65.7% (2006)

Health expenditures 26/191

8.9% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

4.95 physicians/1,000 population (2013)

Hospital bed density

3.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 99.8% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 99.9% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0.2% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0.1% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.42% (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

150,400 (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

800 (2013 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 45/191

26.5% (2014)

Education expenditures 80/173

5% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 17 years

male: 17 years

female: 18 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 5/134

total: 55.5%

male: 56.2%

female: 54.6% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain

conventional short form: Spain

local long form: Reino de Espana

local short form: Espana

Government type

parliamentary monarchy

Capital

name: Madrid

geographic coordinates: 40.24° N, 3.41° W

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: Spain has two time zones including the Canary Islands

Administrative divisions

17 semi=autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma) and 2 autonomous cities* (ciudades autonomas, singular - ciudad autonoma); Andalucia; Aragon; Asturias; Canarias (Canary Islands); Cantabria; Castilla-La Mancha; Castilla-Leon; Cataluna (Castilian), Catalunya (Catalan), Catalonha (Aranese) [Catalonia]; Ceuta*; Comunidad Valenciana (Castilian), Comunitat Valenciana (Valencian) [Valencian Community]; Extremadura; Galicia; Illes Baleares (Balearic Islands); La Rioja; Madrid; Melilla*; Murcia; Navarra (Castilian), Nafarroa (Basque) [Navarre]; Pais Vasco (Castilian), Euskadi (Basque) [Basque Country]

note: the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla plus three small islands of Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, administered directly by the Spanish central government, are all along the coast of Morocco and are collectively referred to as Places of Sovereignty (Plazas de Soberania)

Independence

1492; the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Muslim occupation that began in the early 8th century A.D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately, culminating in the seizure of Granada in 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Spain

National holiday

National Day, 12 October (1492); year when Columbus first set foot in the Americas

Constitution

previous 1812; latest approved by the General Courts 31 October 1978, passed by referendum 6 December 1978, signed by the king 27 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978; amended 1992, 2011 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system with regional variations

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Spain

dual citizenship recognized: only with select Latin American countries

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years for persons with no ties to Spain

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King FELIPE VI (since 19 June 2014); Heir Apparent Princess LEONOR, Princess of Asturias, daughter of the monarch, born 31 October 2005

head of government: President of the Government or Prime Minister Mariano RAJOY (since 20 December 2011); Vice President (and Minister of the President's Office) Soraya SAENZ DE SANTAMARIA (since 22 December 2011)

cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the monarch usually proposes the leader of the party or coalition with the largest majority of seats as president, who is then indirectly elected by the Congress of Deputies; election last held on 20 December 2015; vice president and Council of Ministers appointed by the president

election results: percent of National Assembly vote - NA

note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding

Legislative branch

description: bicameral General Courts or Las Cortes Generales consists of the Senate or Senado (257 seats as of 2013; 208 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 49 appointed by the regional legislatures; members serve 4-year terms) and the Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; 348 members directly elected in 50 multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 directly elected from the North African Ceuta and Melilla enclaves by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms or until the government is dissolved)

elections: Senate - last held on 20 December 2015 (next to be held in 2019); Congress of Deputies - last held on 20 December 2015 (next to be held by 2019)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PP 54.5%, PSOE 24.8%, Podemos 8.6%, DiL 4.9%, ERC 2.6%, EAJ-PNV 2.6%, C's 0.8%, CC-PNC 0.8%, independent 0.4%, other 1.5%; seats by party - PP 145, PSOE 66, Podemos 23, DiL 9, ERC 7, EAJ/PNV 7, CC/PNC 2, C's 2, other 4, independent 1; Congress of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PP 28.7%, PSOE 22.0%, Podemos 20.7%, C's 13.9%, IU/UP 3.7%, ERC 2.4%, DiL 2.3%, EAJ/PNV 1.2%, other 5.1%; seats by party - PP 123, PSOE 90, Podemos 69, C's 40, ERC 9, DiL 8, EAJ/PNV 6, IU/UP 2, other 3

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo (consists of the court president and organized into the Civil Room with a president and 9 magistrates, the Penal Room with a president and 14 magistrates, the Administrative Room with a president and 32 magistrates, the Social Room with a president and 12 magistrates, and the Military Room with a president and 7 magistrates); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional de Espana (consists of 12 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch from candidates proposed by the General Council of the Judiciary Power, a 20-member governing board chaired by the monarch that includes presidential appointees, and lawyers and jurists confirmed by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the National Assembly, executive branch, and the General Council of the Judiciary, and appointed by the monarch for 9-year terms

subordinate courts: National Court; High Courts of Justice (in each of the autonomous communities); provincial courts; courts of first instance

Political parties and leaders

Amaiur [Xabier ERREKONDO] (a separatist political coalition that advocates Basque independence from Spain)

Asturias Forum or FAC [Cristina COTO]

Basque Country Unite (Euskal Herria Bildu) or EH Bildu [Pello URIZAR] (coalition of 4 Basque pro-independence parties)

Basque Nationalist Party or PNV or EAJ [Andoni ORTUZAR]

Canarian Coalition or CC [Claudina MORALES Rodriguez] (coalition of five parties)

Canarian Nationalist Party or PNC [Juan Manuel GARCIA Ramos]

Catalan Agreement of Progress (Entesa Catalonia de Progress) or ECP [Carles BONET i Reves] (Senate coalition of Catalan parties - PSC, ERC, ICV, EUA)

Change or Cambio-Aldaketa

Ciudadamos Party or C's [Albert RIVERA]

Democracy and Freedom or DiL [Francesc HOMS Molist] (2015 merger of Cemocratic Convergence of Catalonia or CDC, Democrats of Catalonia, Reagrupament)

Democratic Union of Catalonia or UDC [Josep Antoni DURAN i LLEIDA]

Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Xavier VENCE]

Gomera Socialist Group or ASG

Initiative for Catalonia Greens or ICV [Joan HERRERA i Torres and Dolors CAMATS]

Podemos [Pablo IGLESIAS Turrion]

Popular Party or PP [Mariano RAJOY Brey]

Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Oriol JUNQUERAS i Vies]

Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Pedro SANCHEZ]

Union of People of Navarra or UPN [Yolanda BARCINA Angulo]

Union, Progress and Democracy or UPyD [Rosa DIEZ Gonzalez]

United Left or IU [Alberto GARZON] (a coalition of parties including the Communist Party of Spain or PCE and other small parties; ran as Popular Unity or UP in 2015 election)

Yes to the Future or Geroa Bai [Uxue BARKOS] (a coalition of four Navarran parties)

Political pressure groups and leaders

Association for Victims of Terrorism or AVT (grassroots organization devoted primarily to supporting victims of the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorist organization)

Catholic Church

Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT (includes the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO)

Trade Union Confederation of Workers' Commissions or CC.OO.

Spanish Confederation of Employers' Organizations or CEOE

other: business and landowning interests; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); university students

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Flag description

three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms is quartered to display the emblems of the traditional kingdoms of Spain (clockwise from upper left, Castile, Leon, Navarre, and Aragon) while Granada is represented by the stylized pomegranate at the bottom of the shield; the arms are framed by two columns representing the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar; the red scroll across the two columns bears the imperial motto of "Plus Ultra" (further beyond) referring to Spanish lands beyond Europe; the triband arrangement with the center stripe twice the width of the outer dates to the 18th century

note: the red and yellow colors are related to those of the oldest Spanish kingdoms: Aragon, Castile, Leon, and Navarre

National symbol(s)

Pillars of Hercules; national colors: red, yellow

National anthem

name: "Himno Nacional Espanol" (National Anthem of Spain)

lyrics/music: no lyrics/unknown

note: officially in use between 1770 and 1931, restored in 1939; the Spanish anthem is the first anthem to be officially adopted, but it has no lyrics; in the years prior to 1931 it became known as "Marcha Real" (The Royal March); it first appeared in a 1761 military bugle call book and was replaced by "Himno de Riego" in the years between 1931 and 1939; the long version of the anthem is used for the king, while the short version is used for the prince, prime minister, and occasions such as sporting events

Economy

Economy - overview

After experiencing a prolonged recession in the wake of the global financial crisis that began in 2008, in 2014 Spain marked the first full year of positive economic growth in seven years, largely due to increased private consumption. At the onset of the global financial crisis Spain's GDP contracted by 3.7% in 2009, ending a 16-year growth trend, and continued contracting through most of 2013. In 2013 the government successfully shored up struggling banks - exposed to the collapse of Spain's depressed real estate and construction sectors - and in January 2014 completed an EU-funded restructuring and recapitalization program.

Until 2014, credit contraction in the private sector, fiscal austerity, and high unemployment weighed on domestic consumption and investment. The unemployment rate rose from a low of about 8% in 2007 to more than 26% in 2013, but labor reforms prompted a modest reduction to 22% in 2015. High unemployment strained Spain's public finances, as spending on social benefits increased while tax revenues fell. Spain’s budget deficit peaked at 11.4% of GDP in 2010, but Spain gradually reduced the deficit to just under 7% of GDP in 2013-14, and 4.7% of GDP in 2015. Public debt has increased substantially – from 60.1% of GDP in 2010 to nearly 101% in 2015.

Exports were resilient throughout the economic downturn and helped to bring Spain's current account into surplus in 2013 for the first time since 1986, where it remained in 2014-15. Rising labor productivity and an internal devaluation resulting from moderating labor costs and lower inflation have helped to improve foreign investor interest in the economy and positive FDI flows have been restored.

The government's efforts to implement labor, pension, health, tax, and education reforms - aimed at supporting investor sentiment - have become overshadowed by political activity in 2015 in anticipation of the national parliamentary elections in December. The European Commission criticized Spain’s 2016 budget for its easing of austerity measures and its alleged overly optimistic growth and deficit projections. Spain’s borrowing costs are dramatically lower since their peak in mid-2012, and despite the recent uptick in economic activity, inflation has dropped sharply, from 1.5% in 2013 to a negative 0.6% in 2015.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 16/230

$1.636 trillion (2015 est.)

$1.588 trillion (2014 est.)

$1.566 trillion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.221 trillion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 97/225

3.1% (2015 est.)

1.4% (2014 est.)

-1.2% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 50/230

$35,200 (2015 est.)

$34,200 (2014 est.)

$33,700 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 83/179

20.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

20.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

20.4% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 58.8%

government consumption: 18.7%

investment in fixed capital: 19.3%

investment in inventories: 0.3%

exports of goods and services: 32.2%

imports of goods and services: -29.3%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.5%

industry: 22.7%

services: 74.8% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish

Industries

textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment

Industrial production growth rate 132/202

1.5% (2015 est.)

Labor force 29/233

22.98 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 2.9%

industry: 15%

services: 58.4% (2014 est.)

Unemployment rate 173/207

22.5% (2015 est.)

24.5% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

21.1% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.5%

highest 10%: 24% (2011)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 87/144

35.9 (2011)

32 (2005)

Budget

revenues: $473.6 billion

expenditures: $527.9 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 45/219

38.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 156/220

-4.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 17/176

101% of GDP (2015 est.)

97.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 15/226

-0.6% (2015 est.)

-0.2% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 150/156

0.05% (10 September 2014)

0.25% (13 November 2013)

note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate 93/184

9.1% (31 December 2015 est.)

9.44% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 8/192

$778.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$858.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money 15/193

$1.257 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.369 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 10/191

$2.428 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.662 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 16/121

$995.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$1.031 trillion (31 December 2011)

$1.172 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 20/197

$10.62 billion (2015 est.)

$11.2 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 19/224

$277.3 billion (2015 est.)

$317.1 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, medicines, other consumer goods

Exports - partners

France 16.2%, Germany 10.7%, Portugal 7.6%, Italy 7.3%, UK 7.1% (2014)

Imports 15/223

$298.3 billion (2015 est.)

$345.6 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semi-finished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, measuring and medical control instruments

Imports - partners

Germany 13.4%, France 11.9%, Italy 6.2%, China 6.1%, Netherlands 4.8%, UK 4.4% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 39/170

$50.35 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$46.31 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Debt - external 10/206

$2.064 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

$2.238 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 14/120

$746.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$721.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 14/105

$707 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$674 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.89 (2015 est.)

0.75 (2014 est.)

0.76 (2013 est.)

0.78 (2012 est.)

0.72 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 14/220

280 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 14/219

243.1 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 11/218

16.94 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 22/219

10.2 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 12/214

102.3 million kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 163/214

43% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 22/214

7.7% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 93/214

19.6% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 4/212

30% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Crude oil - production 82/214

6,419 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 39/214

75,640 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 9/214

1.224 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 65/215

150 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 18/214

1.25 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 19/212

1.209 million bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 20/214

372,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 26/213

285,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 86/216

24 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 31/215

27.16 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 25/215

8.219 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 11/214

36.39 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 98/212

2.548 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 20/212

312.4 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 16/219

total subscriptions: 19.09 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 40 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 30/217

total: 50.8 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: well-developed, modern facilities; fixed-line teledensity exceeds 40 per 100 persons

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 150 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 34; submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Middle East, Asia, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries (2011)

Broadcast media

a mixture of both publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; overall, hundreds of TV channels are available including national, regional, local, public, and international channels; satellite and cable TV systems available; multiple national radio networks, a large number of regional radio networks, and a larger number of local radio stations; overall, hundreds of radio stations (2008)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 18, FM 250, shortwave 2 (2008)

Television broadcast stations

379 (2008)

Internet country code

.es

Internet hosts 26/232

4.228 million (2012)

Internet users 20/217

total: 35.5 million

percent of population: 74.4% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 38/236

150 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 99

over 3,047 m: 18

2,438 to 3,047 m: 14

1,524 to 2,437 m: 19

914 to 1,523 m: 24

under 914 m: 24 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 51

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 13

under 914 m: 36 (2013)

Heliports

10 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 10,481 km; oil 616 km; refined products 3,461 km (2013)

Railways 19/136

total: 16,101.5 km

broad gauge: 11,873 km 1.668-m gauge (6,488 km electrified)

standard gauge: 2,312 km 1.435-m gauge (2,312 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 1,884.9 km 1.000-m gauge (807 km electrified); 28 km 0.914-m gauge (28 km electrified); 3.6 km 0.600-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 11/223

total: 683,175 km

paved: 683,175 km (includes 16,205 km of expressways) (2011)

Waterways 63/107

1,000 km (2012)

Merchant marine 44/156

total: 132

by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 19, chemical tanker 8, container 5, liquefied gas 12, passenger/cargo 43, petroleum tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 9, vehicle carrier 7

foreign-owned: 27 (Canada 4, Germany 4, Italy 1, Mexico 1, Norway 10, Russia 6, Switzerland 1)

registered in other countries: 103 (Angola 1, Argentina 3, Bahamas 6, Brazil 12, Cabo Verde 1, Cyprus 6, Ireland 1, Malta 8, Morocco 9, Panama 30, Peru 1, Portugal 18, Uruguay 5, Venezuela 1, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Algeciras, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Tarragona, Valencia (all in Spain); Las Palmas, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (in the Canary Islands)

container port(s) (TEUs): Algeciras (3,608,301), Barcelona (2,033,747), Valencia (4,327,371); Las Palmas (1,287,389)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Mugardos, Sagunto

Military and Security

Military branches

Spanish Armed Forces: Army (Ejercito de Tierra), Spanish Navy (Armada Espanola, AE; includes Marine Corps), Spanish Air Force (Ejercito del Aire Espanola, EdA) (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18-26 years of age for voluntary military service by a Spanish citizen or legal immigrant, 2-3 year obligation; women allowed to serve in all SAF branches, including combat units; no conscription, but Spanish Government retains right to mobilize citizens 19-25 years of age in a national emergency; mandatory retirement of non-NCO enlisted personnel at age 45 or 58, depending on service length (2013)

Military expenditures 110/132

0.86% of GDP (2012)

0.95% of GDP (2011)

0.86% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); Morocco serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 270 (2014)

Illicit drugs

despite rigorous law enforcement efforts, North African, Latin American, Galician, and other European traffickers take advantage of Spain's long coastline to land large shipments of cocaine and hashish for distribution to the European market; consumer for Latin American cocaine and North African hashish; destination and minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin; money-laundering site for Colombian narcotics trafficking organizations and organized crime