Sweden

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A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war for two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both world wars. Sweden's long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system intermixed with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment and in 2000-02 and 2009 by the global economic downturns, but fiscal discipline over the past several years has allowed the country to weather economic vagaries. Sweden joined the EU in 1995, but the public rejected the introduction of the euro in a 2003 referendum.

Geography

Location

Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway

Geographic coordinates

62.00° N, 15.00° E

Area 56/257

total: 450,295 sq km

land: 410,335 sq km

water: 39,960 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly larger than California

Land boundaries

total: 2,211 km

border countries (2): Finland 545 km, Norway 1,666 km

Coastline

3,218 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)

exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north

Terrain

mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.4 m

highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m

Natural resources

iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 7.5%

arable land 6.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 1.1%

forest: 68.7%

other: 23.8% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

1,597 sq km (2007)

Total renewable water resources

174 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 2.62 cu km/yr (37%/59%/4%)

per capita: 285.6 cu m/yr (2007)

Natural hazards

ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic

Environment - current issues

acid rain damage to soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Swede(s)

adjective: Swedish

Ethnic groups

indigenous population: Swedes with Finnish and Sami minorities; foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks

Languages

Swedish (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities

Religions

Lutheran 87%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist) 13%

Population 91/238

9,801,616 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 17.12% (male 863,125/female 814,803)

15-24 years: 11.97% (male 603,615/female 569,289)

25-54 years: 39.3% (male 1,957,869/female 1,894,064)

55-64 years: 11.63% (male 571,318/female 568,293)

65 years and over: 19.99% (male 900,070/female 1,059,170) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 59.3%

youth dependency ratio: 27.5%

elderly dependency ratio: 31.8%

potential support ratio: 3.1% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 41.2 years

male: 40.2 years

female: 42.2 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 139/233

0.8% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 166/224

11.99 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 59/225

9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 25/222

5.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 85.8% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 0.83% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

STOCKHOLM (capital) 1.486 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

28.9 (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 179/184

4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 217/224

total: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 2.87 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.31 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 15/224

total population: 81.98 years

male: 80.09 years

female: 83.99 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 141/224

1.88 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Health expenditures 27/191

9.7% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

3.93 physicians/1,000 population (2011)

Hospital bed density

2.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 99.3% of population

rural: 99.6% of population

total: 99.3% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0.7% of population

rural: 0.4% of population

total: 0.7% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.18% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

100 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 104/191

22% (2014)

Education expenditures 20/173

6.8% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 15 years

female: 17 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 40/134

total: 23.6%

male: 24.8%

female: 22.3% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden

conventional short form: Sweden

local long form: Konungariket Sverige

local short form: Sverige

Government type

constitutional monarchy

Capital

name: Stockholm

geographic coordinates: 59.20° N, 18.03° E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarna, Gavleborg, Gotland, Halland, Jamtland, Jonkoping, Kalmar, Kronoberg, Norrbotten, Orebro, Ostergotland, Skane, Sodermanland, Stockholm, Uppsala, Varmland, Vasterbotten, Vasternorrland, Vastmanland, Vastra Gotaland

Independence

6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king)

National holiday

National Day, 6 June (1983); note - from 1916 to 1982 this date was celebrated as Swedish Flag Day

Constitution

several previous; latest adopted 1 January 1975; amended several times, last in 2012 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and customary law

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sweden; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen of Sweden and the father unknown

dual citizenship recognized: no, unless the other citizenship was acquired involuntarily

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)

head of government: Prime Minister Stefan LOFVEN (since 3 October 2014); Deputy Prime Minister Asa ROMSON (since 3 October 2014)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; 310 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 39 members in "at-large" seats directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 14 September 2014 (next to be held in September 2018)

election results: percent of vote by party - SAP 31.0%, M 23.3%, SD 12.9%, MP 6.9%, C 6.1%, V 5.7%, FP 5.4%, KD 4.6%, others 4.1%; seats by party - SAP 113, M 84, SD 49, MP 25, C 22, V 21, FP 19, KD 16

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Sweden (consists of 16 justices including the court chairman; Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 18 justices including the court president)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court justices nominated by the Board of Judges, a 9-member nominating body consisting of high-level judges, prosecutors, and members of Parliament; justices appointed by the Government; following a probationary period, justices' appointments are permanent

subordinate courts: first instance and appellate general and administrative courts; specialized courts that handle cases such as land and environment, immigration, labor, markets, and patents

Political parties and leaders

Center Party (Centerpartiet) or C [Annie LOOF]

Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna) or KD [Ebba Busch THOR]

Green Party (Miljopartiet de Grona) or MP [Asa ROMSON and Gustav FRIDOLIN]

Left Party (Vansterpartiet) (formerly Communist Party) or V [Jonas SJOSTEDT]

Liberal People's Party (Folkpartiet) or FP [Jan BJORKLUND]

Moderate Party (Moderaterna) or M [Anna KINBERG BATRA]

Swedish Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokraterna) or SAP [Stefan LOFVEN]

Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna) or SD [Jimmie AKESSON]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Swedish Confederation of Professional Associations or SACO

Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees or TCO

Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen) or LO [Wanja LUNDBY-WEDIN]

other: environmental groups; media

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Flag description

blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors reflect those of the Swedish coat of arms - three gold crowns on a blue field

National symbol(s)

three crowns, lion; national colors: blue, yellow

National anthem

name: "Du Gamla, Du Fria" (Thou Ancient, Thou Free)

lyrics/music: Richard DYBECK/traditional

note: in use since 1844; also known as "Sang till Norden" (Song of the North), is based on a Swedish folk tune; it has never been officially adopted by the government; "Kungssangen" (The King's Song) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies

Economy

Economy - overview

Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living with its combination of free-market capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. Sweden remains outside the euro zone largely out of concern that joining the European Economic and Monetary Union would diminish the country’s sovereignty over its welfare system. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Economic growth slowed in 2013, as a result of continued economic weakness in Sweden’s European trading partners; Sweden’s economy experienced modest growth in 2014-15, with real GDP growth above 2%, but the country continues to struggle with deflationary pressure.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 42/230

$467.4 billion (2015 est.)

$454.9 billion (2014 est.)

$444.8 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$483.7 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 108/225

2.8% (2015 est.)

2.3% (2014 est.)

1.3% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 26/230

$48,000 (2015 est.)

$46,700 (2014 est.)

$45,600 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 13/179

31.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

29.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

28.8% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 45.4%

government consumption: 25.6%

investment in fixed capital: 24.1%

investment in inventories: 0%

exports of goods and services: 45.3%

imports of goods and services: -40.4%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 1.8%

industry: 33.5%

services: 64.7% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk

Industries

iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate 71/202

3.5% (2015 est.)

Labor force 78/233

5.184 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 2%

industry: 12%

services: 86% (2014 est.)

Unemployment rate 87/207

7.4% (2015 est.)

7.9% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

14% (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.4%

highest 10%: 24% (2012)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 140/144

24.9 (2013)

25 (1992)

Budget

revenues: $250.8 billion

expenditures: $256.1 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 12/219

51.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 56/220

-1.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 103/176

44% of GDP (2015 est.)

43.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 34/226

0% (2015 est.)

-0.2% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 156/156

0% (31 December 2014)

1% (31 December 2013)

note:: the Discount rate was abolished in 2002, and replaced by a "Reference rate" with no bearing on monetary policy; the rate quoted here is the Reference rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate 178/184

2% (31 December 2015 est.)

2.53% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 17/192

$272.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$258.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 31/193

$326.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$322.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 17/191

$785.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$788.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 21/121

$560.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$470.1 billion (31 December 2011)

$581.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 12/197

$32.52 billion (2015 est.)

$35.39 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 31/224

$151.1 billion (2015 est.)

$178.8 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals (2012 est.)

Exports - partners

Norway 10.4%, Germany 10.4%, UK 7.4%, Finland 7.3%, Denmark 7.2%, US 6%, Netherlands 5.3%, Belgium 4.6%, France 4.6% (2014)

Imports 32/223

$133.2 billion (2015 est.)

$161.4 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing

Imports - partners

Germany 17.4%, Netherlands 7.7%, Norway 7.6%, Denmark 7.4%, UK 6.2%, China 5.3%, Russia 5.2%, Finland 5.1%, France 4.4% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 34/170

$62.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$65.38 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Debt - external 18/206

$1.01 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

$1.107 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 18/120

$432.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$429 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 17/105

$504.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$487.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

Swedish kronor (SEK) per US dollar -

8.23 (2015 est.)

6.86 (2014 est.)

6.86 (2013 est.)

6.77 (2012 est.)

6.49 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 24/220

161 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 27/219

130.5 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 8/218

22.68 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 14/219

12.67 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 25/214

37.94 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 199/214

9.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 6/214

24.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 56/214

43% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 13/212

22.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 194/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 62/214

12,590 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 26/214

352,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 194/215

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 39/214

355,700 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 42/212

295,200 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 34/214

192,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 36/213

152,700 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 133/216

0 cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 93/215

892 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 186/215

0 cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 59/214

892 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 197/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 59/212

51.08 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 43/219

total subscriptions: 3.82 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 39 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 75/217

total: 12.3 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 127 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure; ranked among leading countries for fixed-line, mobile-cellular, Internet and broadband penetration

domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels

international: country code - 46; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway) (2011)

Broadcast media

publicly owned TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial networks plus regional stations; multiple privately owned TV broadcasters operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 50 local TV stations; widespread access to pan-Nordic and international broadcasters through multi-channel cable and satellite TV; publicly owned radio broadcaster operates 3 national stations and a network of 25 regional channels; roughly 100 privately owned local radio stations with some consolidating into near national networks; an estimated 900 community and neighborhood radio stations broadcast intermittently (2008)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 1, FM 124, shortwave 0 (2008)

Television broadcast stations

252 (2008)

Internet country code

.se

Internet hosts 19/232

5.978 million (2010)

Internet users 47/217

total: 8.7 million

percent of population: 89.1% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 25/236

231 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 149

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 12

1,524 to 2,437 m: 75

914 to 1,523 m: 22

under 914 m: 37 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 82

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 77 (2013)

Heliports

2 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 1,626 km (2013)

Railways 21/136

total: 11,915 km

standard gauge: 11,850 km 1.435-m gauge (7,567 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 65 km 0.891-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2014)

Roadways 13/223

total: 579,564 km (includes 1,913 km of expressways)

paved: 135,444 km

unpaved: 444,412 km

note: includes 104,705 km of state roads, 433,034 km of private roads, and 41,825 km of municipal roads (2010)

Waterways 40/107

2,052 km (2010)

Merchant marine 42/156

total: 135

by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 16, carrier 1, chemical tanker 15, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 36, petroleum tanker 11, roll on/roll off 30, vehicle carrier 17

foreign-owned: 35 (Denmark 4, Estonia 3, Finland 16, Germany 3, Ireland 1, Italy 5, Norway 3)

registered in other countries: 189 (Bahamas 11, Barbados 4, Bermuda 14, Canada 2, Cook Islands 3, Cyprus 5, Denmark 15, Faroe Islands 11, Finland 1, France 4, Gibraltar 11, Italy 1, Liberia 12, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 1, Netherlands 12, Norway 27, Panama 2, Portugal 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 10, Singapore 11, UK 28) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Brofjorden, Goteborg, Helsingborg, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo, Stockholm, Trelleborg, Visby

LNG terminal(s) (import): Brunnsviksholme, Lysekil

Military and Security

Military branches

Swedish Armed Forces (Forsvarsmakten): Army (Armen), Royal Swedish Navy (Marinen), Swedish Air Force (Svenska Flygvapnet) (2010)

Military service age and obligation

18-47 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; Swedish citizenship required; service obligation: 7.5 months (Army), 7-15 months (Navy), 8-12 months (Air Force); the Swedish Parliament has abolished compulsory military service, with exclusively voluntary recruitment as of July 2010; conscription remains an option in emergencies; after completing initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until age 47 (2013)

Military expenditures 84/132

1.18% of GDP (2012)

1.17% of GDP (2011)

1.18% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 34,285 (Syria); 24,184 (Iraq); 21,189 (Somalia); 14,107 (Eritrea); 12,090 (Afghanistan) (2014)

stateless persons: 27,167 (2014); note - the majority of stateless people are from the Middle East and Somalia