Tajikistan

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The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bands of indigenous guerrillas (called "basmachi") fiercely contested Bolshevik control of the area, which was not fully reestablished until 1925. Tajikistan was first created as an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan in 1924, but the USSR designated Tajikistan a separate republic in 1929 and transferred to it much of present-day Sughd province. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992 to 1997. Tajikistan has endured several domestic security incidents since 2010, including armed conflict between government forces and local strongmen in the Rasht Valley and between government forces and criminal groups in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast, as well as attacks on security personnel in September 2015. The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Tajikistan became a member of the World Trade Organization in March 2013. However, its economy continues to face major challenges, including dependence on remittances from Tajikistanis working in Russia, pervasive corruption, and the major role narcotrafficking plays in the country's informal economy.

Geography

Location

Central Asia, west of China, south of Kyrgyzstan

Geographic coordinates

39.00° N, 71.00° E

Area 96/257

total: 144,100 sq km

land: 141,510 sq km

water: 2,590 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries

total: 4,130 km

border countries (4): Afghanistan 1,357 km, China 477 km, Kyrgyzstan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1,312 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains

Terrain

Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m

highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m

Natural resources

hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold

Land use

agricultural land: 34.7%

arable land 6.1%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 27.7%

forest: 2.9%

other: 62.4% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

7,421 sq km (2009)

Total renewable water resources

21.91 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 11.49 cu km/yr (6%/4%/91%)

per capita: 1,740 cu m/yr (2006)

Natural hazards

earthquakes; floods

Environment - current issues

inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

landlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Tajikistani(s)

adjective: Tajikistani

Ethnic groups

Tajik 84.3%, Uzbek 13.8% (includes Lakai, Kongrat, Katagan, Barlos, Yuz), other 2% (includes Kyrgyz, Russian, Turkmen, Tatar, Arab) (2010 est.)

Languages

Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business

note: different ethnic groups speak Uzbek, Kyrgyz, and Pashto

Religions

Sunni Muslim 85%, Shia Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)

Population 96/238

8,191,958 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 32.75% (male 1,365,565/female 1,317,285)

15-24 years: 19.7% (male 818,661/female 795,125)

25-54 years: 39.26% (male 1,590,051/female 1,626,091)

55-64 years: 5.1% (male 191,688/female 226,134)

65 years and over: 3.19% (male 109,084/female 152,274) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 60.9%

youth dependency ratio: 56%

elderly dependency ratio: 4.8%

potential support ratio: 20.7% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 23.9 years

male: 23.4 years

female: 24.4 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 69/233

1.71% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 57/224

24.38 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 156/225

6.18 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 151/222

-1.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 26.8% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 2.62% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

DUSHANBE (capital) 822,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

22.8

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 93/184

32 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 63/224

total: 33.93 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 38.23 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 29.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 168/224

total population: 67.39 years

male: 64.28 years

female: 70.66 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 70/224

2.71 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

27.9% (2012)

Health expenditures 120/191

6.8% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

1.92 physicians/1,000 population (2013)

Hospital bed density

5.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 93.1% of population

rural: 66.7% of population

total: 73.8% of population

unimproved:

urban: 6.9% of population

rural: 33.3% of population

total: 26.2% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 93.8% of population

rural: 95.5% of population

total: 95% of population

unimproved:

urban: 6.2% of population

rural: 4.5% of population

total: 5% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.35% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

16,400 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

700 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 136/191

12% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 56/138

13.3% (2012)

Education expenditures 114/173

4% of GDP (2012)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 11 years

male: 12 years

female: 10 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 72/134

total: 16.7%

male: 19.2%

female: 13.7% (2009 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan

conventional short form: Tajikistan

local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston

local short form: Tojikiston

former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Dushanbe

geographic coordinates: 38.33° N, 68.46° E

time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor), 1 capital region** (viloyati poytakht), and 1 area referred to as Districts Under Republic Administration***; Dushanbe**, Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Kuhistoni Badakhshon [Gorno-Badakhshan]* (Khorugh), Nohiyahoi Tobei Jumhuri***, Sughd (Khujand)

note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses

Independence

9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday

Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)

Constitution

several previous; latest adopted 6 November 1994; amended 1999, 2003, 2014 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tajikistan

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years or 3 years of continuous residence prior to application

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)

head of government: Prime Minister Qohir RASULZODA (since 23 November 2013)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (eligible for 2 terms); election last held on 6 November 2013 (next to be held in November 2020); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON (PDPT) 83.9%, Ismoil TALBAKOV (CPT) 5%, other 11.1%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly or Majlisi Milli (34 seats; 25 members indirectly elected by local representative assemblies or majlisi, 8 appointed by the president, and 1 reserved for the former president; members serve 5-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; 41 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by two-round absolute majority vote and 22 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: National Assembly - last held on 1 March 2015 (next to be held in 2020); Assembly of Representatives - last held on 1 March 2015 (next to be held in 2020)

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 65.4%, APT 11.7%, PERT 7.5%, SPT 5.5%, CPT 2.2%, DPT 1.7%, other 6%; seats by party - PDPT 51, APT 5, PERT 3, SPT 1, CPT 2, DPT 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, deputy chairmen, and 34 judges organized into civil, criminal, and military chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of the court chairman, vice-president, and 5 judges); High Economic Court (consists 16 judicial positions)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, and High Economic Court judges nominated by the president of the republic and approved by the National Assembly; judges of all 3 courts appointed for 10-year renewable terms with no limit on terms, but last appointment must occur before the age of 65

subordinate courts: regional and district courts; Dushanbe City Court; viloyat (province level) courts; Court of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region

Political parties and leaders

Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Amir QARAQULOV]

Communist Party of Tajikistan or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]

Democratic Party of Tajikistan or DPT [Saidjafar ISMONOV]

Party of Economic Reform of Tajikistan or PERT [Olimjon BOBOEV]

People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]

Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]

Socialist Party of Tajikistan or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFOROV]

Political pressure groups and leaders

influential religious leader Akbar TURAJONZODA

New Tajikistan party [Zayd SAIDOV] (unregistered)

presidential candidate of Union of Reformist Forces of Tajikistan Oynihol BOBONAZAROVA (unregistered)

Vatandor (Patriot) Movement [Dodojon ATOVULLOEV]

Youth Party of Tajikistan [Izzat AMON] (unregistered)

Youth for the Revival of Tajikistan [Maqsud IBROHIMOV]

International organization participation

ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe; red represents the sun, victory, and the unity of the nation, white stands for purity, cotton, and mountain snows, while green is the color of Islam and the bounty of nature; the crown symbolizes the Tajik people; the seven stars signify the Tajik magic number "seven" - a symbol of perfection and the embodiment of happiness

National symbol(s)

crown surmounted by seven, five-pointed stars; national colors: red, white, green

National anthem

name: "Surudi milli" (National Anthem)

lyrics/music: Gulnazar KELDI/Suleiman YUDAKOV

note: adopted 1991; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet republic but adopted new lyrics

Economy

Economy - overview

Tajikistan is a poor, mountainous country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, metals processing, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. The 1992-97 civil war severely damaged an already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production, and today, Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Less than 7% of the land area is arable and cotton is the most important crop. Tajikistan imports approximately 60% of its food. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists mainly of small obsolete factories in food processing and light industry, substantial hydropower facilities, and a large aluminum plant - currently operating well below its capacity. Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan, more than one million Tajik citizens work abroad - roughly 90% in Russia - supporting families back home through remittances that have been equivalent to nearly 50% of GDP. Some experts estimate the value of narcotics transiting Tajikistan is equivalent to 30-50% of GDP.

Since the end of the Tajikistani Civil War in 1997, the country has pursued half-hearted reforms and privatizations, but the poor business climate remains a hurdle to attracting investment. Tajikistan has sought to develop its substantial hydroelectricity potential through partnership with Russian and Iranian investors, and is pursuing completion of the Roghun dam - which, if built according to plan, would be the tallest dam in the world. However, the project will take at least 8 to 11 years to construct, and faces financing shortfalls and opposition from downstream Uzbekistan.

Recent slowdowns in the Russian and Chinese economies, low commodity prices, and currency fluctuations are hampering economic growth in Tajikistan. By some estimates, the dollar value of remittances from Russia to Tajikistan dropped by more than 40% in 2014. The government faces challenges financing the public debt, which is equivalent to 35% of GDP, and the National Bank of Tajikistan has aggressively spent down reserves to bolster the weakening somoni, leaving little space for fiscal or monetary measures to counter any additional economic shocks.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 139/230

$23.3 billion (2015 est.)

$22.62 billion (2014 est.)

$21.2 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$8.045 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 99/225

3% (2015 est.)

6.7% (2014 est.)

7.4% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 191/230

$2,800 (2015 est.)

$2,700 (2014 est.)

$2,600 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 164/179

5.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

5.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

12.2% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 116.9%

government consumption: 12.6%

investment in fixed capital: 13.9%

investment in inventories: 3.4%

exports of goods and services: 17.2%

imports of goods and services: -64%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 25.7%

industry: 17.3%

services: 57% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats

Industries

aluminum, cement, vegetable oil

Industrial production growth rate 119/202

2% (2015 est.)

Labor force 120/233

2.209 million (2013 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 46.5%

industry: 10.7%

services: 42.8% (2013 est.)

Unemployment rate 17/207

2.5% (2013 est.)

2.5% (2012 est.)

note: official rates; actual unemployment is much higher

Population below poverty line

35.6% (2013 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA% (2009 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 107/144

32.6 (2006)

34.7 (1998)

Budget

revenues: $2.432 billion

expenditures: $2.481 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 83/219

30.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 46/220

-0.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 175/176

6.5% of GDP (2013 est.)

NA%

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 203/226

8.9% (2015 est.)

6.1% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 79/156

4.8% (31 December 2013)

6.5% (31 December 2012)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 10/184

22% (31 December 2015 est.)

21.62% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 145/192

$1.28 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.42 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 152/193

$2.085 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$1.778 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 156/191

$1.135 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.338 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$NA

$NA

$NA

Current account balance 103/197

-$604 million (2015 est.)

-$853 million (2014 est.)

Exports 170/224

$555.6 million (2015 est.)

$526.8 million (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles

Exports - partners

Turkey 23.2%, Iran 13%, Afghanistan 10.7%, Kazakhstan 10.5%, Italy 8.5%, Bangladesh 7.4%, China 6.9%, Russia 5.4% (2014)

Imports 142/223

$3.162 billion (2015 est.)

$4.509 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs

Imports - partners

China 46.6%, Russia 16.8%, Kazakhstan 10.5%, Turkey 5.2% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 153/170

$430.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)

$502.8 million (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 139/206

$3.612 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$3.538 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 107/120

$2.272 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$NA

$16.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates

Tajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar -

6.21 (2015 est.)

4.93 (2014 est.)

4.93 (2013 est.)

4.76 (2012 est.)

4.61 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 79/220

17.09 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - consumption 79/219

14.42 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 55/218

1 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 92/219

114 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 76/214

4.476 million kW (2013 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 200/214

9% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 188/214

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 11/214

91% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 130/212

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Crude oil - production 97/214

206 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 194/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 131/214

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 91/215

12 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 111/214

400 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 151/212

12,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 115/214

500 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 111/213

20,090 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 91/216

13 million cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 104/215

211 million cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 190/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 70/214

198 million cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 92/212

5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 143/212

2.618 million Mt (2013 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 98/219

total subscriptions: 440,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 96/217

total: 8 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 99 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements; conversion of the existing fixed network from analogue to digital was completed in 2012

domestic: fixed line availability has not changed significantly since 1998, while mobile cellular subscribership, aided by competition among multiple operators, has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and towns

international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 3 (2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita) (2011)

Broadcast media

state-run TV broadcaster transmits nationally on 4 stations and regionally on 4 stations; 11 independent TV stations broadcast locally and regionally; some households are able to receive Russian and other foreign stations via cable and satellite; state-run radio broadcaster operates Radio Tajikistan, Voice of Dushanbe, and several regional stations; a small number of independent radio stations (2010)

Radio broadcast stations

16 (number of licensed stations with only about 10 broadcasting) (2009)

Television broadcast stations

24 (number of licensed stations with only about 15 active) (2009)

Internet country code

.tj

Internet hosts 142/232

6,258 (2012)

Internet users 118/217

total: 1.3 million

percent of population: 16.1% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 131/236

24 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 17

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 3 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 5 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 549 km; oil 38 km (2013)

Railways 104/136

total: 680 km

broad gauge: 680 km 1.520-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 98/223

total: 27,767 km (2000)

Waterways 98/107

200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2011)

Military and Security

Military branches

Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Mobile Forces (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation; males required to undergo compulsory military training between ages 16 and 55; males can enroll in military schools from at least age 15 (2012)

Military expenditures

1.1% of GDP (2014)

1% of GDP (2008)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

in 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 1,364 (2014)

Illicit drugs

major transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; Tajikistan seizes roughly 80% of all drugs captured in Central Asia and stands third worldwide in seizures of opiates (heroin and raw opium); significant consumer of opiates