Tanzania

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Shortly after achieving independence from Britain in the early 1960s, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the United Republic of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule ended in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities. The formation of a government of national unity between Zanzibar's two leading parties succeeded in minimizing electoral tension in 2010.

Geography

Location

Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique

Geographic coordinates

6.00° S, 35.00° E

Area 31/257

total: 947,300 sq km

land: 885,800 sq km

water: 61,500 sq km

note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar

Area - comparative

more than six times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than twice the size of California

Land boundaries

total: 4,161 km

border countries (8): Burundi 589 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 479 km, Kenya 775 km, Malawi 512 km, Mozambique 840 km, Rwanda 222 km, Uganda 391 km, Zambia 353 km

Coastline

1,424 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate

varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands

Terrain

plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m (highest point in Africa)

Natural resources

hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel

Land use

agricultural land: 43.7%

arable land 14.3%; permanent crops 2.3%; permanent pasture 27.1%

forest: 37.3%

other: 19% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

1,843 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources

96.27 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 5.18 cu km/yr (10%/0%/89%)

per capita: 144.7 cu m/yr (2002)

Natural hazards

flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought

volcanism: limited volcanic activity; Ol Doinyo Lengai (elev. 2,962 m) has emitted lava in recent years; other historically active volcanoes include Kieyo and Meru

Environment - current issues

soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

Kilimanjaro is the highest point in Africa and one of only two mountains on the continent that has glaciers (the other is Mount Kenya); bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) in the southwest

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Tanzanian(s)

adjective: Tanzanian

Ethnic groups

mainland - African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African

Languages

Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages

note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources including Arabic and English; it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages

Religions

Christian 61.4%, Muslim 35.2%, folk religion 1.8%, other 0.2%, unaffiliated 1.4%

note: Zanzibar - is almost entirely Muslim (2010 est.)

Population 27/238

51,045,882

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 44.34% (male 11,428,872/female 11,205,695)

15-24 years: 19.59% (male 4,999,410/female 4,999,503)

25-54 years: 29.61% (male 7,588,196/female 7,524,554)

55-64 years: 3.49% (male 772,258/female 1,010,744)

65 years and over: 2.97% (male 648,851/female 867,799) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 93.8%

youth dependency ratio: 87.6%

elderly dependency ratio: 6.2%

potential support ratio: 16.1% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 17.5 years

male: 17.2 years

female: 17.8 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 14/233

2.79% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 17/224

36.39 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 99/225

8 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 136/222

-0.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 31.6% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 5.36% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

DAR ES SALAAM (capital) 5.116 million; Mwanza 838,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

19.5

note: median age at first birth among women 20-24 (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 23/184

398 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 49/224

total: 42.43 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 44.47 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 40.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 192/224

total population: 61.71 years

male: 60.34 years

female: 63.13 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 17/224

4.89 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

34.4% (2009/10)

Health expenditures 81/191

7.3% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density

0.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 77.2% of population

rural: 45.5% of population

total: 55.6% of population

unimproved:

urban: 22.1% of population

rural: 56% of population

total: 46.8% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 31.3% of population

rural: 8.3% of population

total: 15.6% of population

unimproved:

urban: 68.7% of population

rural: 91.7% of population

total: 84.4% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

5.34% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

1,499,400 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

46,100 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 156/191

5.9% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 53/138

13.6% (2011)

Education expenditures 37/173

6.2% of GDP (2010)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 9 years

male: 9 years

female: 9 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 120/134

total: 5.8%

male: 4.5%

female: 7.2% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania

conventional short form: Tanzania

local long form: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania

local short form: Tanzania

former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar

note: the country's name is a combination of the names of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the two states that merged to form Tanzania in 1964

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Dodoma; note - officially changed in 1996; serves as the meeting place for the National Assembly; the executive branch offices and diplomatic representation remain in Dar es Salaam, the largest city and commercial capital

geographic coordinates: 6.48° S, 39.17° E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

30 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Geita, Iringa, Kagera, Kaskazini Pemba (Pemba North), Kaskazini Unguja (Zanzibar North), Katavi, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Kusini Pemba (Pemba South), Kusini Unguja (Zanzibar Central/South), Lindi, Manyara, Mara, Mbeya, Mjini Magharibi (Zanzibar Urban/West), Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Njombe, Pwani (Coast), Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Simiyu, Singida, Tabora, Tanga

Independence

26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent on 9 December 1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became independent on 10 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar on 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania on 29 October 1964

National holiday

Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)

Constitution

several previous; latest adopted 25 April 1977; amended many times, last in 2012; note - in 2012, the Tanzania Constitutional Review Commission was formed, and in June 2013, completed the first draft of a new constitution and a second version in December; a 640-member Constituent Assembly, formed in February 2014, passed a new constitution draft in October; a national referendum planned for April 2015 has been postponed (2015)

Legal system

English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tanzania; if a child is born abroad, the father must be a citizen of Tanzania

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President John MAGUFULI (since 5 November 2015); Vice President Samia SULUHU (since 5 November 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President John MAGUFULI, Dr. (since 5 November 2015); Vice President Samia SULUHU (since 5 November 2015); note - Prime Minister Majaliwa Kassim MAJALIWA (since 20 November 2015) has authority over the day-to-day functions of the government and is the leader of government busines in the National Assembly

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October 2020); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: John MAGUFULI elected president; percent of vote - John MAGUFULI (CCM) 58.5%, Edward LOWASSA (CHADEMA) 40%, other 1.5%

note: Zanzibar elects a president as head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; election held on 25 October 2015 was annulled by the Zanzibar Electoral Commission

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (Bunge) (357 seats; 239 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 102 women directly elected by proportional representation vote, 5 indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the Zanzibar House of Representatives, 10 appointed by the president, and 1 seat reserved for the attorney general; members serve a 5-year term); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the National Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives or Baraza La Wawakilishi (81 seats; 50 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 15 women directly elected by proportional representation vote, 10 appointed by the Zanzibar president, 5 seats reserved for government appointed regional commissioners, and 1 seat for the attorney general; elected members serve a 5-year term)

elections: Tanzania National Assembly and Zanzibar House of Representatives elections last held on 25 October 2015 (next National Assembly election to be held in October 2020; next Zanzibar election NA; note the Zanzibar Electoral Commission annulled the 2015 election; no date for repoll announced as of early November)

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA

Zanzibar House of Representatives - election annulled

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Court of Appeal of the United Republic of Tanzania (consists of the chief justice and 14 justices); High Court of the United Republic for Mainland Tanzania (consists of the principal judge and 30 judges organized into commercial, land, and labor courts); High Court of Zanzibar (consists of the chief justice and NA judges)

judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court justices appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission for Tanzania, a judicial body of high level judges and 2 members appointed by the national president; Court of Appeal and High Court judges appointed until mandatory retirement at age 60 but can be extended; High Court of Zanzibar judges appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Commission of Zanzibar; judge tenure NA

subordinate courts: Resident Magistrates Courts; Kadhi courts (for Islamic family matters); district and primary courts

Political parties and leaders

Civic United Front or CUF (Chama Cha Wananchi [Seif Shariff HAMAD, Secretary General]

National Convention for Construction and Reform - Mageuzi or NCCR-M [James Francis MBATCA]

Party of Democracy and Development or CHADEMA (Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo) [Freeman MBOWE]

Revolutionary Party or CCM (Chama Cha Mapinduzi) [John MAGUFULI]

Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine MREMA]

United Democratic Party or UDP [John Momose CHEYO]

Note: in March 2014, four opposition parties (CUF, CHADEMA, NCCR-Mageuzi, and the National League for Democracy) united to form Umoja wa Katiba ya Wananchi (Coalition for the People's Constituion) or UKAWA; during local elections held in October, 2014, UKAWA entered one candidate representing the three parties united in the coalition

Political pressure groups and leaders

Economic and Social Research Foundation or ESRF

Free Zanzibar

Tanzania Media Women's Association or TAMWA

Tanzania Private Sector Foundation or TPSF

Twaweza

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, EAC, EADB, EITI, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue; the banner combines colors found on the flags of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; green represents the natural vegetation of the country, gold its rich mineral deposits, black the native Swahili people, and blue the country's many lakes and rivers, as well as the Indian Ocean

National symbol(s)

Uhuru (Freedom) torch, giraffe; national colors: green, yellow, blue, black

National anthem

name: "Mungu ibariki Afrika" (God Bless Africa)

lyrics/music: collective/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA

note: adopted 1961; the anthem, which is also a popular song in Africa, shares the same melody with that of Zambia, but has different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem

Economy

Economy - overview

Tanzania is one of the world's poorest economies in terms of per capita income, but has achieved high growth rates based on its vast natural resource wealth and tourism. GDP growth in 2009-15 was an impressive 6-7% per year. Dar es Salaam used fiscal stimulus measures and easier monetary policies to lessen the impact of the global recession. Tanzania has largely completed its transition to a market economy, though the government retains a presence in sectors such as telecommunications, banking, energy, and mining.

The economy depends on agriculture, which accounts for more than one-quarter of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs about 80% of the work force; agriculture accounts for 7% of government expenditures. All land in Tanzania is owned by the government, which can lease land for up to 99 years. Proposed reforms to allow for land ownership, particularly foreign land ownership, remain unpopular.

The financial sector in Tanzania has expanded in recent years and foreign-owned banks account for about 48% of the banking industry's total assets. Competition among foreign commercial banks has resulted in significant improvements in the efficiency and quality of financial services, though interest rates are still relatively high, reflecting high fraud risk. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private-sector growth and investment.

The World Bank, the IMF, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's aging infrastructure, including rail and port, that provide important trade links for inland countries. In 2013, Tanzania completed the world's largest Millennium Challenge Compact grant, worth $698 million, and, in December 2014, the Millennium Challenge Corporation selected Tanzania for a second Compact.

In late 2014, a highly publicized scandal in the energy sector involving senior Tanzanian officials resulted in international donors freezing nearly $500 million in direct budget support to the government. The Tanzanian shilling weakened in 2015 because of lower gold prices, election-related political risk, and outflows from emerging market currencies generally.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 76/230

$138.3 billion (2015 est.)

$129.4 billion (2014 est.)

$121 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$46.19 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 17/225

6.9% (2015 est.)

7% (2014 est.)

7.3% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 188/230

$3,000 (2015 est.)

$2,800 (2014 est.)

$2,600 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 65/179

22.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

21.9% of GDP (2014 est.)

15.1% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 68%

government consumption: 16.1%

investment in fixed capital: 29.3%

investment in inventories: -0.3%

exports of goods and services: 18.7%

imports of goods and services: -31.8%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 26.5%

industry: 25.6%

services: 47.3% (2014 est.)

Agriculture - products

coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves, corn, wheat, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats

Industries

agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine); mining (diamonds, gold, and iron), salt, soda ash; cement, oil refining, shoes, apparel, wood products, fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate 26/202

5.3% (2015 est.)

Labor force 26/233

26.11 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 80%

industry and services: 20% (2002 est.)

Unemployment rate

NA%

Population below poverty line

67.9% (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 29.6% (2007)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 76/144

37.6 (2007)

34.6 (2000)

Budget

revenues: $6.819 billion

expenditures: $8.431 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 195/219

14.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 133/220

-3.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 123/176

36.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

31.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

1 July - 30 June

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 187/226

6.6% (2015 est.)

6.1% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 36/156

8.25% (31 December 2010)

3.7% (31 December 2009)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 38/184

15.2% (31 December 2015 est.)

15.75% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 108/192

$3.957 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$4.805 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 115/193

$8.072 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$7.533 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 110/191

$7.726 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$9.318 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 102/121

$1.803 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$1.539 billion (31 December 2011)

$1.264 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 164/197

-$3.775 billion (2015 est.)

-$4.476 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 107/224

$5.365 billion (2015 est.)

$5.319 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton

Exports - partners

India 21%, China 9.9%, Japan 5.3%, Germany 4.7% (2014)

Imports 96/223

$10.49 billion (2015 est.)

$10.92 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil

Imports - partners

China 27.6%, India 24.5% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 100/170

$4.021 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$4.39 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

note: excludes gold

Debt - external 99/206

$14.12 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$13.02 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$NA

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$NA

Exchange rates

Tanzanian shillings (TZS) per US dollar -

2,039.4 (2015 est.)

1,654 (2014 est.)

1,654 (2013 est.)

1,583 (2012 est.)

1,572.1 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 116/220

5.532 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 120/219

4.545 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 209/218

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 100/219

61 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 127/214

845,000 kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 174/214

33.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 197/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 30/214

66.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 136/212

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 201/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 201/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 139/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 203/215

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 140/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 110/212

35,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 141/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 93/213

34,850 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 65/216

995 million cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 91/215

995 million cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 199/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 146/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 86/212

6.513 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 103/212

9.295 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 139/219

total subscriptions: 150,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 37/217

total: 31.9 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 64 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: telecommunications services are marginal; system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service; small aperture terminal (VSAT) system under construction

domestic: fixed-line telephone network inadequate with less than 1 connection per 100 persons; mobile-cellular service, aided by multiple providers, is increasing rapidly and in 2011 exceeded a subscriber base of 50 telephones per 100 persons; trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital

international: country code - 255; landing point for the EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable system linking East Africa with Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean) (2010)

Broadcast media

a state-owned TV station and multiple privately owned TV stations; state-owned national radio station supplemented by more than 40 privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 12, FM 11, shortwave 2 (1998)

Television broadcast stations

3 (1999)

Internet country code

.tz

Internet hosts 110/232

26,074 (2012)

Internet users 51/217

total: 7.4 million

percent of population: 15.0% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 34/236

166 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 10

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 156

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 24

914 to 1,523 m: 98

under 914 m: 33 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 311 km; oil 891 km; refined products 8 km (2013)

Railways 47/136

total: 4,567 km

narrow gauge: 1,860 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,707 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 53/223

total: 86,472 km

paved: 7,092 km

unpaved: 79,380 km (2010)

Waterways

(Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) are the principal avenues of commerce with neighboring countries; the rivers are not navigable) (2011)

Merchant marine 52/156

total: 94

by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 66, carrier 4, chemical tanker 1, container 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3

foreign-owned: 42 (Japan 1, Romania 1, Saudi Arabia 1, Syria 23, Turkey 13, UAE 3)

registered in other countries: 3 (Panama 2, UK 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar

Military and Security

Military branches

Tanzania People's Defense Force (Jeshi la Wananchi la Tanzania, JWTZ): Army, Naval Wing (includes Coast Guard), Air Defense Command (includes Air Wing), National Service (2007)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)

Military expenditures 88/132

1.13% of GDP (2012)

1.12% of GDP (2011)

1.13% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River; Malawi contends that the entire lake up to the Tanzanian shoreline is its territory, while Tanzania claims the border is in the center of the lake; the conflict was reignited in 2012 when Malawi awarded a license to a British company for oil exploration in the lake

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 53,881 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2014); 129,544 (Burundi) (2016)

Illicit drugs

targeted by traffickers moving hashish, Afghan heroin, and South American cocaine transported down the East African coastline, through airports, or overland through Central Africa; Zanzibar likely used by traffickers for drug smuggling; traffickers in the past have recruited Tanzanian couriers to move drugs through Iran into East Asia