Togo

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French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multi-party elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has been in power almost continually since 1967 and its successor, the Union for the Republic, maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. After years of political unrest and condemnation from international organizations for human rights abuses, Togo is finally being re-welcomed into the international community.

Geography

Location

Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana

Geographic coordinates

8.00° N, 1.10° E

Area 126/257

total: 56,785 sq km

land: 54,385 sq km

water: 2,400 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries

total: 1,880 km

border countries (3): Benin 651 km, Burkina Faso 131 km, Ghana 1,098 km

Coastline

56 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 30 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate

tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain

gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mont Agou 986 m

Natural resources

phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 67.4%

arable land 45.2%; permanent crops 3.8%; permanent pasture 18.4%

forest: 4.9%

other: 27.7% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

73 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources

14.7 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 0.17 cu km/yr (63%/3%/34%)

per capita: 33.46 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards

hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues

deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Togolese (singular and plural)

adjective: Togolese

Ethnic groups

African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%

Languages

French (official, the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)

Religions

Christian 29%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 51%

Population 100/238

7,552,318

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 40.56% (male 1,536,301/female 1,527,018)

15-24 years: 19.51% (male 735,409/female 738,276)

25-54 years: 32.37% (male 1,214,388/female 1,230,218)

55-64 years: 4.24% (male 150,890/female 169,158)

65 years and over: 3.32% (male 108,474/female 142,186) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 81.8%

youth dependency ratio: 76.8%

elderly dependency ratio: 5%

potential support ratio: 19.9% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 19.6 years

male: 19.4 years

female: 19.9 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 17/233

2.69% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 29/224

34.13 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 120/225

7.26 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 80/222

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 40% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 3.83% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

LOME (capital) 956,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

21

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013/14 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 40/184

368 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 45/224

total: 45.22 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 51.76 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 38.48 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 179/224

total population: 64.51 years

male: 61.91 years

female: 67.17 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 28/224

4.48 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

15.2% (2010)

Health expenditures 45/191

8.6% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density

0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 91.4% of population

rural: 44.2% of population

total: 63.1% of population

unimproved:

urban: 8.6% of population

rural: 55.8% of population

total: 36.9% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 24.7% of population

rural: 2.9% of population

total: 11.6% of population

unimproved:

urban: 75.3% of population

rural: 97.1% of population

total: 88.4% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

2.4% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

113,700 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

4,300 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 169/191

6.4% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 41/138

16.5% (2010)

Education expenditures 91/173

4% of GDP (2012)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 12 years

male: NA

female: NA (2011)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Togolese Republic

conventional short form: Togo

local long form: Republique Togolaise

local short form: none

former: French Togoland

Government type

republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule

Capital

name: Lome

geographic coordinates: 6.07° N, 1.13° E

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes

Independence

27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday

Independence Day, 27 April (1960)

Constitution

several previous; latest adopted 27 September 1992, effective 14 October 1992; amended 2002, 2007 (2015)

Legal system

customary law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Togo

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005)

head of government: Prime Minister Komi KLASSOU (since 5 June 2015)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 25 April 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Faure GNASSINGBE reelected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE (UNIR) 58.8%, Jean-Pierre FABRE (ANC) 35.2%, Tchaboure GOGUE 3.1%, other 3.8%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (91 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 25 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018)

election results: percent of vote by party - UNIR 46.7%, CST 28.9%, Rainbow Alliance 10.8%, UFC 7.7%, independent 0.8%, other 5.1%; seats by party - UNIR 62, CST 19, Rainbow Alliance 6, UFC 3, independent 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into the Criminal Chamber and the Administrative Chamber, each with a chamber president and advisors); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges including the court president)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by decree of the president of the republic upon the proposal of the Supreme Council of the Magistracy, a 9-member judicial, advisory, and disciplinary body; other judge appointments and judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA

subordinate courts: Court of Assizes (sessions court); appeals courts; tribunals of first instance (divided into civil, commercial, and correctional chambers; Court of State Security; military tribunal

Political parties and leaders

Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Dodji APEVON]

Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA [Brigitte ADJAMAGBO-JOHNSON]

National Alliance for Change or ANC [Jean-Pierre FABRE]

Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP [Edem KODJO]

Rainbow Alliance (a coalition including CAR and CDPA) [Brigitte ADJAMAGBO-JOHNSON]

Save Togo Collective or CST (a coalition including: ANC and PSR) [Ata Messan Zeus AJAVON

Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR [Abi TCHESSA]

Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]

Union of Forces for Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]

Political pressure groups and leaders

NA

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; a white five-pointed star on a red square is in the upper hoist-side corner; the five horizontal stripes stand for the five different regions of the country; the red square is meant to express the loyalty and patriotism of the people; green symbolizes hope, fertility, and agriculture; yellow represents mineral wealth and faith that hard work and strength will bring prosperity; the star symbolizes life, purity, peace, dignity, and Togo's independence

note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: green, yellow, red, white

National anthem

name: "Salut a toi, pays de nos aieux" (Hail to Thee, Land of Our Forefathers)

lyrics/music: Alex CASIMIR-DOSSEH

note: adopted 1960, restored 1992; this anthem was replaced by another during one-party rule between 1979 and 1992

Economy

Economy - overview

This small, sub-Saharan economy depends heavily on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for a significant share of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is among the world's largest producers of phosphate and seeks to develop its carbonate phosphate reserves.

The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Togo completed its IMF Extended Credit Facility in 2011 and reached a Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) debt relief completion point in 2010 at which 95% of the country's debt was forgiven. Togo continues to work with the IMF on structural reforms. Progress depends on follow through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors.

Togo’s 2015 economic growth remained steady at 5.4%, largely driven by infusions of foreign aid, infrastructure investment in the port and mineral sectors, and improvements in the business climate. Foreign direct investment inflows have slowed in recent years.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 157/230

$10.82 billion (2015 est.)

$10.26 billion (2014 est.)

$9.773 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$4.152 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 34/225

5.4% (2015 est.)

5% (2014 est.)

5.4% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 215/230

$1,500 (2015 est.)

$1,500 (2014 est.)

$1,400 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 138/179

12.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

10.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

10.5% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 90.3%

government consumption: 15.6%

investment in fixed capital: 22.5%

investment in inventories: 26.1%

exports of goods and services: 56.8%

imports of goods and services: -111.3%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 29.5%

industry: 21%

services: 49.5% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (manioc, tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish

Industries

phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages

Industrial production growth rate 6/202

9.7% (2015 est.)

Labor force 112/233

2.595 million (2007 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 65%

industry: 5%

services: 30% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate

NA%

Population below poverty line

32% (1989 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.3%

highest 10%: 27.1% (2006)

Budget

revenues: $1.025 billion

expenditures: $1.192 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 124/219

24.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 145/220

-4% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 83/176

48.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

47.4% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 84/226

1.5% (2015 est.)

0.2% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 111/156

2.5% (31 December 2010)

4.25% (31 December 2009)

Commercial bank prime lending rate

NA%

Stock of narrow money 155/192

$983.4 million (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.036 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 155/193

$2.017 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.025 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 145/191

$1.652 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.642 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$NA

Current account balance 98/197

-$508 million (2015 est.)

-$591 million (2014 est.)

Exports 139/224

$1.934 billion (2015 est.)

$1.809 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa

Exports - partners

Burkina Faso 15.9%, Ghana 12.6%, India 10.5%, Nigeria 9%, Benin 8.5%, Niger 8.3%, Lebanon 4.8%, China 4.3% (2014)

Imports 145/223

$2.983 billion (2015 est.)

$3.004 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products

Imports - partners

China 24.8%, Belgium 19.2%, France 7.7%, India 6%, US 5.5%, Netherlands 4.1% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 150/170

$494.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)

$507 million (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 164/206

$984.4 million (31 December 2014 est.)

$903.3 million (31 December 2013 est.)

Exchange rates

Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -

580.5 (2015 est.)

494.42 (2014 est.)

494.42 (2013 est.)

510.53 (2012 est.)

471.87 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 197/220

109 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 152/219

976 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 204/218

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 63/219

959 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 177/214

83,000 kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 191/214

21.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 191/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 17/214

78.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 133/212

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 198/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 197/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 134/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 199/215

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 136/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 146/212

13,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 137/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 133/213

11,950 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 136/216

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 200/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 193/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 141/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 200/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 156/212

1.63 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 155/219

total subscriptions: 63,200

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 121/217

total: 4.8 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 66 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system

domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 50 telephones per 100 persons with mobile-cellular use predominating

international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie (2010)

Broadcast media

2 state-owned TV stations with multiple transmission sites; 5 private TV stations broadcast locally; cable TV service is available; state-owned radio network with multiple stations; several dozen private radio stations and a few community radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters available (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (1998)

Television broadcast stations

3 (plus 2 repeaters) (1997)

Internet country code

.tg

Internet hosts 170/232

1,168 (2012)

Internet users 138/217

total: 336,000

percent of population: 4.6% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 163/236

8 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Railways 111/136

total: 568 km

narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 129/223

total: 11,652 km

paved: 2,447 km

unpaved: 9,205 km (2007)

Waterways 102/107

50 km (seasonally navigable by small craft on the Mono River depending on rainfall) (2011)

Merchant marine 66/156

total: 61

by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 38, carrier 3, chemical tanker 5, container 3, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1

foreign-owned: 21 (China 1, Lebanon 6, Romania 1, Syria 6, Turkey 4, UAE 1, US 1, Yemen 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Kpeme, Lome

Military and Security

Military branches

Togolese Armed Forces (Forces Armees Togolaise, FAT): Togolese Army (l'Armee de Terre), Togolese Navy (Forces Naval Togolaises), Togolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Togolaise, TAF), National Gendarmerie (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year service obligation (2012)

Military expenditures

NA% (2012)

1.6% of GDP (2011)

NA% (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; talks continue between Benin and Togo on funding the Adjrala hydroelectric dam on the Mona River

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 18,444 (Ghana) (2014)

IDPs: undetermined (2015)

Illicit drugs

transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem