Turkey

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Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the Kurdistan People's Congress or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives. After the capture of the group's leader in 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turkey mainly to northern Iraq. In 2013, the PKK and the Turkish Government agreed to a cease-fire that continues despite slow progress in ongoing peace talks. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1963, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community; it began accession membership talks with the EU in 2005. Over the past decade, economic reforms have contributed to a quickly growing economy.

Geography

Location

Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria

Geographic coordinates

39.00° N, 35.00° E

Area 37/257

total: 783,562 sq km

land: 769,632 sq km

water: 13,930 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries

total: 2,816 km

border countries (8): Armenia 311 km, Azerbaijan 17 km, Bulgaria 223 km, Georgia 273 km, Greece 192 km, Iran 534 km, Iraq 367 km, Syria 899 km

Coastline

7,200 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea; 12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea

exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR

Climate

temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

Terrain

high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m

Natural resources

coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 49.7%

arable land 26.7%; permanent crops 4%; permanent pasture 19%

forest: 14.9%

other: 35.4% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

53,400 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

211.6 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 40.1 cu km/yr (14%/10%/76%)

per capita: 572.9 cu m/yr (2008)

Natural hazards

severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van

volcanism: limited volcanic activity; its three historically active volcanoes; Ararat, Nemrut Dagi, and Tendurek Dagi have not erupted since the 19th century or earlier

Environment - current issues

water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography - note

strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link the Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Turk(s)

adjective: Turkish

Ethnic groups

Turkish 70-75%, Kurdish 18%, other minorities 7-12% (2008 est.)

Languages

Turkish (official), Kurdish, other minority languages

Religions

Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)

Population 19/238

79,414,269 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 25.45% (male 10,339,731/female 9,868,005)

15-24 years: 16.25% (male 6,587,897/female 6,314,306)

25-54 years: 43.07% (male 17,323,965/female 16,878,498)

55-64 years: 8.15% (male 3,216,877/female 3,253,892)

65 years and over: 7.09% (male 2,498,187/female 3,132,911) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 49.7%

youth dependency ratio: 38.4%

elderly dependency ratio: 11.3%

potential support ratio: 8.9% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 30.1 years

male: 29.7 years

female: 30.6 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 93/233

1.26% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 118/224

16.33 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 170/225

5.88 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 50/222

2.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 73.4% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 1.97% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

Istanbul 14.164 million; ANKARA (capital) 4.75 million; Izmir 3.04 million; Bursa 1.923 million; Adana 1.83 million; Gaziantep 1.528 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

22.3 (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 139/184

16 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 93/224

total: 18.87 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 20.13 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 17.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 115/224

total population: 74.57 years

male: 72.26 years

female: 77 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 114/224

2.05 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

73% (2008)

Health expenditures 103/191

5.6% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

1.71 physicians/1,000 population (2011)

Hospital bed density

2.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 98.3% of population

rural: 85.5% of population

total: 94.9% of population

unimproved:

urban: 1.7% of population

rural: 14.5% of population

total: 5.1% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 36/191

29.4% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 123/138

1.9% (2014)

Education expenditures 142/173

2.9% of GDP (2006)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 15 years

female: 14 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 66/134

total: 18.7%

male: 16.9%

female: 21.9% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Turkey

conventional short form: Turkey

local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti

local short form: Turkiye

Government type

republican parliamentary democracy

Capital

name: Ankara

geographic coordinates: 39.56° N, 32.52° E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

81 provinces (iller, singular - ili); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak

Independence

29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday

Republic Day, 29 October (1923)

Constitution

several previous; latest ratified 9 November 1982; amended 2001, 2007, 2010; note - work on a new constitution begun in 2011 has stalled in parliament (2015)

Legal system

civil law system based on various European legal systems notably the Swiss civil code

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Turkey

dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission from the government

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 10 August 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Ahmet DAVUTOGLU (since 28 August 2014); Deputy Prime Ministers Yalcin AKDOGAN (since 29 August 2014), Yildirim Tugrul TURKES (since 29 August 2014), Lutfi ELVAN (since 24 November 2015),Numan KURTULMUS (since 29 August 2014), Mehmet SIMSEK (since 24 November 2015)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament; note - a 2007 constitutional amendment changed the presidential electoral process to direct popular vote; prime minister appointed by the president from among members of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey

election results: Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN elected president; Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (AKP) 51.8%, Ekmeleddin IHSANOGLU (independent) 38.4%, Selahattin DEMIRTAS (HDP) 9.8%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 1 November 2015 (next to be held on June 2019); note - ERDOGAN was unable to form a coalition government and announced on 24 August 2015 that snap elections would be held; DAVUTOGLU formed the interim government

election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 49.5%, CHP 25.3%, MHP 11.9%, HDP 10.8%, other 2.6%; seats by party - AKP 317, CHP 134, MHP 40, HDP 59; note - only parties surpassing the 10% threshold can win parliamentary seats

Judicial branch

highest court: Constitutional Court or Anayasa Mahkemesi (consists of 17 members); Supreme Court of Appeals (consists of about 390 judges and organized into 15 divisions with 23 civil and 15 criminal chambers); Council of State (organized into 15 divisions - 14 judicial and 1 consultative – each with a division head and at least 5 members)

judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court members - 3 appointed by the Grand National Assembly and 14 by the president of the republic from among candidates nominated by the plenary assemblies of the high courts (with the exception of the Court of High Accounts), the Higher Education Council, and from among senior government administrators, lawyers, judges and prosecutors, and Constitutional Court rapporteurs; court president and 2 deputy presidents appointed from among its members for 4-year terms; judges appointed for 12-year, non-renewable terms with mandatory retirement at age 65; Supreme Court of Appeals judges appointed by the Supreme Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors (SCJP), an independent body of judicial officials; judges appointed until retirement at age 65; Council of State members appointed by the SCJP and by the president of the republic; members appointed for renewable, 4-year terms

subordinate courts: basic (first instance) courts, military courts, specialized courts, including administrative and audit

Political parties and leaders

Democratic Party or DP [Gultekin UYSAL]

Felicity Party or SP [Mustafa KAMALAK]

Grand Unity Party or BBP [Mustafa DESTICI]

Justice and Development Party or AKP [Ahmet DAVUTOGLU]

Nationalist Movement Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]

People's Democratic Party or HDP [Selahattin DEMIRTAS and Figen YUKSEKDAG]

Republican People's Party or CHP [Kemal KILICDAROGLU]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Confederation of Businessmen and Industrialists of Turkey or TUSKON [Rizanur MERAL]

Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Lami OZGEN, Sazyie KOSE, co-chairs]

Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Tayfun GORGUN]

Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Nail OLPAK]

Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Mahmut ARSLAN]

Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Tugrul KUDATGOBILIK]

Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Ergun ATALAY]

Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Bendevi PALANDOKEN]

Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Muharrem YILMAZ]

Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CPLP (associate observer), D-8, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (candidate country), FAO, FATF, G-20, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, PIF (partner), SCO (dialogue member), SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Flag description

red with a vertical white crescent moon (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening; the flag colors and designs closely resemble those on the banner of the Ottoman Empire, which preceded modern-day Turkey; the crescent moon and star serve as insignia for Turkic peoples (the crescent represents the mythical moon god, Ay Ata, and the star the sun goddess, Gun Ana); according to one legend, the flag represents the reflection of the moon and a star in a pool of blood of Turkish warriors

National symbol(s)

star and crescent; national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "Istiklal Marsi" (Independence March)

lyrics/music: Mehmet Akif ERSOY/Zeki UNGOR

note: lyrics adopted 1921, music adopted 1932; the anthem's original music was adopted in 1924; a new composition was agreed upon in 1932

Economy

Economy - overview

Turkey's largely free-market economy is increasingly driven by its industry and service sectors, although its traditional agriculture sector still accounts for about 25% of employment. An aggressive privatization program has reduced state involvement in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication, and an emerging cadre of middle-class entrepreneurs is adding dynamism to the economy and expanding production beyond the traditional textiles and clothing sectors. The automotive, petrochemical, and electronics industries are rising in importance and have surpassed textiles within Turkey's export mix.

Oil began to flow through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline in May 2006, marking a major milestone that has brought up to 1 million barrels per day from the Caspian region to market. The joint Turkish-Azeri Trans Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline (TANAP) is moving forward to help transport Caspian gas to Europe through Turkey, which will help address Turkey's dependence on imported gas, which currently meets 98% of its energy needs.

After Turkey experienced a severe financial crisis in 2001, Ankara adopted financial and fiscal reforms as part of an IMF program. The reforms strengthened the country's economic fundamentals and ushered in an era of strong growth averaging more than 6% annually until 2008. Global economic conditions and tighter fiscal policy caused GDP to contract in 2009, but Turkey's well-regulated financial markets and banking system helped the country weather the global financial crisis, and GDP rebounded strongly to around 9% in 2010-11, as exports returned to normal levels following the recession. Two rating agencies upgraded Turkey's debt to investment grade in 2012 and 2013, and Turkey's public sector debt to GDP ratio fell to 33% in 2014. The stock value of Foreign Direct Investment reached nearly $195 billion at year-end 2014.

Despite these positive trends, GDP growth dropped to 4.4% in 2013 and 2.9% in 2014. Growth slowed considerably in the last quarter of 2014, largely due to lackluster consumer demand both domestically and in Europe, Turkey’s most important export market. High interest rates have also contributed to the slowdown in growth, as Turkey sharply increased interest rates in January 2014 in order to strengthen the country’s currency and reduce inflation. Turkey then cut rates in February 2015 in a bid to spur economic growth.

The Turkish economy retains significant weaknesses. Specifically, Turkey's relatively high current account deficit, uncertain commitment to structural reform, and turmoil within Turkey's neighborhood leave the economy vulnerable to destabilizing shifts in investor confidence. Turkey also remains overly dependent on often volatile, short-term investment to finance its large current account deficit.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 18/230

$1.576 trillion (2015 est.)

$1.53 trillion (2014 est.)

$1.486 trillion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$722.2 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 98/225

3% (2015 est.)

2.9% (2014 est.)

4.2% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 87/230

$20,500 (2015 est.)

$19,900 (2014 est.)

$19,300 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 108/179

16% of GDP (2015 est.)

14.4% of GDP (2014 est.)

12.8% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 68.2%

government consumption: 15.4%

investment in fixed capital: 19.8%

investment in inventories: 0%

exports of goods and services: 28.7%

imports of goods and services: -32.1%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 8.1%

industry: 27.7%

services: 64.2% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, hazelnuts, pulses, citrus; livestock

Industries

textiles, food processing, automobiles, electronics, mining (coal, chromate, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

Industrial production growth rate 42/202

4.5% (2015 est.)

Labor force 21/233

29.4 million

note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 25.5%

industry: 26.2%

services: 48.4% (2010)

Unemployment rate 116/207

10.4% (2015 est.)

10% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

16.9% (2010 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.1%

highest 10%: 30.3% (2008)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 61/144

40.2 (2010)

43.6 (2003)

Budget

revenues: $175.4 billion

expenditures: $187.4 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 128/219

24.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 62/220

-1.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 133/176

33.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

35% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: data cover central government debt, and excludes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 193/226

7.5% (2015 est.)

8.9% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 73/156

5.25% (31 December 2011)

15% (22 December 2009)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 51/184

13.8% (31 December 2015 est.)

13.38% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 35/192

$99.09 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$111.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 25/193

$474.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$425.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 22/191

$551 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$618.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 30/121

$308.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$201.8 billion (31 December 2011)

$306.7 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 192/197

-$32.69 billion (2015 est.)

-$46.53 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 29/224

$153.6 billion (2015 est.)

$168.9 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment

Exports - partners

Germany 9.6%, Iraq 6.9%, UK 6.3%, Italy 4.5%, France 4.1%, US 4% (2014)

Imports 22/223

$204.3 billion (2015 est.)

$232.5 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment

Imports - partners

Russia 10.4%, China 10.3%, Germany 9.2%, US 5.3%, Italy 5%, Iran 4.1% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 20/170

$118.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$127.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 31/206

$402.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$389.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 31/120

$184.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$169.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 42/105

$44.98 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$40.48 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

Turkish liras (TRY) per US dollar -

2.74 (2015 est.)

2.19 (2014 est.)

2.19 (2013 est.)

1.8 (2012 est.)

1.68 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 21/220

228.3 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 20/219

197 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 52/218

1.236 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 33/219

7.425 billion kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 18/214

57.12 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 130/214

61% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 194/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 65/214

34.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 62/212

4.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 59/214

47,670 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 74/214

4,176 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports 24/214

379,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 56/215

296 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 35/214

483,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 28/212

718,600 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 41/214

142,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 16/213

438,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production 70/216

476 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 17/215

48.45 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports 40/215

633 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports 8/214

48.89 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 85/212

6.824 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 22/212

296.9 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 19/219

total subscriptions: 12.53 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 21/217

total: 71.9 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 92 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: comprehensive telecommunications network undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially in mobile-cellular services

domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 100 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 90; international service is provided by the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable and by submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas that link Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2010)

Broadcast media

Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) operates multiple TV and radio networks and stations; multiple privately owned national television stations and up to 300 private regional and local television stations; multi-channel cable TV subscriptions available; more than 1,000 private radio broadcast stations (2009)

Radio broadcast stations

1,090 (station frequency types NA) (2009)

Television broadcast stations

251 (2009)

Internet country code

.tr

Internet hosts 16/232

7.093 million (2012)

Internet users 19/217

total: 36.6 million

percent of population: 46.6% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 58/236

98 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 91

over 3,047 m: 16

2,438 to 3,047 m: 38

1,524 to 2,437 m: 17

914 to 1,523 m: 16

under 914 m: 4 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Heliports

20 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 12,603 km; oil 3,038 km (2013)

Railways 20/136

total: 12,008 km

standard gauge: 12,008 km 1.435-m gauge (3,216 km electrified) (2014)

Roadways 18/223

total: 385,754 km

paved: 352,268 km (includes 2,127 km of expressways)

unpaved: 33,486 km (2012)

Waterways 59/107

1,200 km (2010)

Merchant marine 18/156

total: 629

by type: bulk carrier 102, cargo 281, chemical tanker 80, container 42, liquefied gas 6, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 60, petroleum tanker 25, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 29, specialized tanker 1

foreign-owned: 1 (Italy 1)

registered in other countries: 645 (Albania 1, Antigua and Barbuda 7, Azerbaijan 1, Bahamas 3, Barbados 1, Belize 16, Brazil 1, Cambodia 15, Comoros 8, Cook Islands 4, Curacao 5, Cyprus 1, Dominica 1, Georgia 14, Italy 4, Kazakhstan 1, Liberia 16, Malta 233, Marshall Islands 70, Moldova 18, Panama 62, Russia 101, Saint Kitts and Nevis 18, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 13, Sierra Leone 9, Slovakia 1, Tanzania 13, Togo 4, Tuvalu 1, unknown 3) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Aliaga, Ambarli, Diliskelesi, Eregli, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Mersin (Icel), Limani, Yarimca

container port(s) (TEUs): Ambarli (2,121,549), Mersin (Icel) (1,126,866)

LNG terminal (import): Izmir Aliaga, Marmara Ereglisi

Military and Security

Military branches

Turkish Armed Forces (TSK): Turkish Land Forces (Turk Kara Kuvvetleri), Turkish Naval Forces (Turk Deniz Kuvvetleri; includes naval air and naval infantry), Turkish Air Forces (Turk Hava Kuvvetleri) (2013)

Military service age and obligation

21-41 years of age for male compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary service; 12 months conscript obligation for non-university graduates, 6-12 months for university graduates (graduates of higher education may perform 6 months of military service as short-term privates, or 12 months as reserve officers); conscripts are called to register at age 20, for service at 21; women serve in the Turkish Armed Forces only as officers; reserve obligation to age 41; Turkish citizens with a residence or work permit who have worked abroad for at least 3 years (1095 days) can be exempt from military service in exchange for 6,000 EUR or its equivalent in foreign currencies; a law passed in December 2014 introduced a one-time payment scheme which exempted Turkish citizens 27 and older from conscription in exchange for a payment of $8,150 (2013)

Military expenditures 35/132

2.29% of GDP (2015 forecast)

2.36% of GDP (2014)

2.39% of GDP (2013)

2.31% of GDP (2012)

2.28% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; status of north Cyprus question remains; Syria and Iraq protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; Turkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): at least 103,000 (Iraq) (2014); 2,503,549 (Syria) (2015)

IDPs: 954,000-1.2 million (displaced from 1984-2005 because of fighting between Kurdish PKK and Turkish military; most IDPs are Kurds from eastern and southeastern provinces; no information available on persons displaced by development projects) (2014)

stateless persons: 780 (2014)

Illicit drugs

key transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and, to a lesser extent, the US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin exist in remote regions of Turkey and near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and over output of poppy straw concentrate; lax enforcement of money-laundering controls