Uganda

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The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences prevented the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda. A constitutional referendum in 2005 cancelled a 19-year ban on multi-party politics and lifted presidential term limits.

Geography

Location

East-Central Africa, west of Kenya, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates

1.00° N, 32.00° E

Area 81/257

total: 241,038 sq km

land: 197,100 sq km

water: 43,938 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries

total: 2,729 km

border countries (5): Democratic Republic of the Congo 877 km, Kenya 814 km, Rwanda 172 km, South Sudan 475 km, Tanzania 391 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

Terrain

mostly plateau with rim of mountains

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Lake Albert 621 m

highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m

Natural resources

copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land, gold

Land use

agricultural land: 71.2%

arable land 34.3%; permanent crops 11.3%; permanent pasture 25.6%

forest: 14.5%

other: 14.3% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

144.2 sq km (2010)

Total renewable water resources

66 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 0.32 cu km/yr (41%/16%/43%)

per capita: 12.31 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards

NA

Environment - current issues

draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; widespread poaching

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography - note

landlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Ugandan(s)

adjective: Ugandan

Ethnic groups

Baganda 16.9%, Banyankole 9.5%, Basoga 8.4%, Bakiga 6.9%, Iteso 6.4%, Langi 6.1%, Acholi 4.7%, Bagisu 4.6%, Lugbara 4.2%, Bunyoro 2.7%, other 29.6% (2002 census)

Languages

English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic

Religions

Roman Catholic 41.9%, Protestant 42% (Anglican 35.9%, Pentecostal 4.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.5%), Muslim 12.1%, other 3.1%, none 0.9% (2002 census)

Population 36/238

37,101,745

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 48.47% (male 8,966,494/female 9,015,302)

15-24 years: 21.16% (male 3,892,004/female 3,958,998)

25-54 years: 25.91% (male 4,808,534/female 4,803,040)

55-64 years: 2.43% (male 431,112/female 470,359)

65 years and over: 2.04% (male 332,724/female 423,178) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 102.3%

youth dependency ratio: 97.3%

elderly dependency ratio: 5%

potential support ratio: 19.9% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 15.6 years

male: 15.6 years

female: 15.7 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 5/233

3.24% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 3/224

43.79 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 36/225

10.69 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 143/222

-0.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 16.1% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 5.43% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

KAMPALA (capital) 1.936 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

19.3

note: median age at first birth among women 20-24 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 37/184

343 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 21/224

total: 59.21 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 68.39 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 49.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 211/224

total population: 54.93 years

male: 53.54 years

female: 56.36 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 5/224

5.89 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

30% (2011)

Health expenditures 58/191

9.8% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

0.12 physicians/1,000 population (2005)

Hospital bed density

0.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 95.5% of population

rural: 75.8% of population

total: 79% of population

unimproved:

urban: 4.5% of population

rural: 24.2% of population

total: 21% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 28.5% of population

rural: 17.3% of population

total: 19.1% of population

unimproved:

urban: 71.5% of population

rural: 82.7% of population

total: 80.9% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

7.25% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

1,486,600 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

32,900 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 167/191

3.9% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 51/138

14.1% (2011)

Education expenditures 131/173

3.3% of GDP (2012)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 10 years

male: 10 years

female: 10 years (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 125/134

total: 2.6%

male: 2%

female: 3.2% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Uganda

conventional short form: Uganda

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Kampala

geographic coordinates: 0.19° N, 32.33° E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

111 districts and 1 capital city*; Abim, Adjumani, Agago, Alebtong, Amolatar, Amudat, Amuria, Amuru, Apac, Arua, Budaka, Bududa, Bugiri, Buhweju, Buikwe, Bukedea, Bukomansimbi, Bukwa, Bulambuli, Buliisa, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Busia, Butaleja, Butambala, Buvuma, Buyende, Dokolo, Gomba, Gulu, Hoima, Ibanda, Iganga, Isingiro, Jinja, Kaabong, Kabale, Kabarole, Kaberamaido, Kalangala, Kaliro, Kalungu, Kampala*, Kamuli, Kamwenge, Kanungu, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Katakwi, Kayunga, Kibaale, Kiboga, Kibuku, Kiruhura, Kiryandongo, Kisoro, Kitgum, Koboko, Kole, Kotido, Kumi, Kween, Kyankwanzi, Kyegegwa, Kyenjojo, Lamwo, Lira, Luuka, Luwero, Lwengo, Lyantonde, Manafwa, Maracha, Masaka, Masindi, Mayuge, Mbale, Mbarara, Mitooma, Mityana, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Nakaseke, Nakasongola, Namayingo, Namutumba, Napak, Nebbi, Ngora, Ntoroko, Ntungamo, Nwoya, Otuke, Oyam, Pader, Pallisa, Rakai, Rubirizi, Rukungiri, Sembabule, Serere, Sheema, Sironko, Soroti, Tororo, Wakiso, Yumbe, Zombo

Independence

9 October 1962 (from the UK)

National holiday

Independence Day, 9 October (1962)

Constitution

several previous; latest adopted 27 September 1995, promulgated 8 October 1995; amended many times, last in 2005; note - amendments proposed in early 2015 (2015)

Legal system

mixed legal system of English common law and customary law

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a native-born citizen of Uganda

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: an aggregate of 20 years and continuously for the last 2 years prior to applying for citizenship

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Prime Minister Amama MBABAZI (since 24 May 2011); note - the prime minister assists the president in supervising the cabinet

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected members of the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (limited to 2 terms); election last held on 18 February 2011 (next to be held on 18 February 2016)

election results: Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI reelected president; percent of vote - Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (NRM) 68.4%, Kizza BESIGYE (FDC) 26.0%, other 5.6%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (375 seats; 238 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 112 for women directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, and 25 "representatives" reserved for special interest groups - army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5; there are 13 ex-officio members appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 18 February 2011 (next to be held in March 2016)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NRM 263, FDC 34, DP 12, UPC 10, UPDF 10, CP 1, JEEMA 1, independent 43, vacant 1; note - UPDF is the Uganda People's Defense Force

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Uganda (consists of the chief justice and 7 justices)

judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president in consultation with the Judicial Service Commission (a 9-member independent advisory body) and with approval of the National Assembly; justices serve until mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal (also sits as the Constitutional Court); High Court (includes 10 High Court Circuits and 7 High Court Divisions); Chief Magistrate, Grade One and Grade Two Courts

Political parties and leaders

Conservative Party or CP [Ken LUKYAMUZI]

Democratic Party or DP [Norbert MAO]

Forum for Democratic Change or FDC [Mugisha MUNTU]

Justice Forum or JEEMA [Asuman BASALIRWA]

National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]

Ugandan People's Congress or UPC

Political pressure groups and leaders

Activists for Change or A4C

National Association of Women Organizations in Uganda or NAWOU [Florence NEKYON]

Parliamentary Advocacy Forum or PAFO

Ugandan Coalition for Political Accountability to Women or COPAW

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a grey crowned crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side; black symbolizes the African people, yellow sunshine and vitality, red African brotherhood; the crane was the military badge of Ugandan soldiers under the UK

National symbol(s)

grey crowned crane; national colors: black, yellow, red

National anthem

name: "Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty!"

lyrics/music: George Wilberforce KAKOMOA

note: adopted 1962

Economy

Economy - overview

Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals, and recently discovered oil. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over two-thirds of the work force. Coffee accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986, the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings. Since 1990 economic reforms ushered in an era of solid economic growth based on continued investment in infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, lower inflation, better domestic security, and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs. The global economic downturn in 2008 hurt Uganda's exports; however, Uganda's GDP growth has largely recovered due to past reforms and sound management of the downturn. Oil revenues and taxes will become a larger source of government funding as oil comes on line in the next few years, although lower oil prices since 2014 and protracted negotiations and legal disputes between the Ugandan government and oil companies may prove a stumbling block to further exploration and development. Instability in South Sudan is a risk for the Ugandan economy because Uganda is a key destination for Sudanese refugees and South Sudan is Uganda's main export partner. Unreliable power, high energy costs, inadequate transportation infrastructure, and corruption inhibit economic development and investor confidence. During 2014 to 2015 the Uganda shilling depreciated against the dollar, and this, coupled with increased public debt, has severely impeded production, especially since Uganda imports most of its capital goods.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 90/230

$79.75 billion (2015 est.)

$75.81 billion (2014 est.)

$72.36 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$24.94 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 36/225

5.2% (2015 est.)

4.8% (2014 est.)

3.9% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 201/230

$2,100 (2015 est.)

$2,000 (2014 est.)

$1,900 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 63/179

22.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

20.6% of GDP (2014 est.)

22% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 72.6%

government consumption: 8.9%

investment in fixed capital: 29.7%

investment in inventories: 0.2%

exports of goods and services: 22.5%

imports of goods and services: -33.9%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 26.3%

industry: 22.3%

services: 51.4% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (manioc, tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses, cut flowers; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry

Industries

sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production

Industrial production growth rate 24/202

5.5% (2015 est.)

Labor force 33/233

18.58 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 82%

industry: 5%

services: 13% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate

NA%

Population below poverty line

19.7% (2013 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.4%

highest 10%: 36.1% (2009 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 66/144

39.5 (2013)

45.7 (2002)

Budget

revenues: $3.29 billion

expenditures: $4.34 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 203/219

13.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 152/220

-4.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 127/176

34.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

30.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

1 July - 30 June

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 173/226

4.9% (2015 est.)

4.3% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 11/156

14% (December 2014)

14.5% (31 December 2013)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 9/184

22.2% (31 December 2015 est.)

21.53% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 132/192

$1.839 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.396 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 138/193

$4.262 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$3.705 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 127/191

$3.327 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$4.157 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 80/121

$7.294 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$7.727 billion (31 December 2011)

$1.788 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Current account balance 153/197

-$2.625 billion (2015 est.)

-$2.666 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 130/224

$2.755 billion (2015 est.)

$2.743 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

coffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold

Exports - partners

Rwanda 10.1%, UAE 9.8%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 9.3%, Kenya 9.1%, Netherlands 6%, Germany 5.7%, Italy 5.5%, China 5.3% (2014)

Imports 126/223

$4.603 billion (2015 est.)

$5.116 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals

Imports - partners

Kenya 18.3%, UAE 14.3%, India 12.8%, China 11.3%, Japan 4.4% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 102/170

$3.681 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$3.316 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

note: excludes gold

Debt - external 130/206

$4.97 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$4.361 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$NA

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$NA

Exchange rates

Ugandan shillings (UGX) per US dollar -

3,339.6 (2015 est.)

2,599.8 (2014 est.)

2,599.8 (2013 est.)

2,505.6 (2012 est.)

2,522.8 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 132/220

3.045 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 137/219

2.821 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 82/218

70 million kWh (2012)

Electricity - imports 101/219

59 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 132/214

711,400 kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 193/214

21% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 198/214

0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 37/214

59.9% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 15/212

19.2% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Crude oil - production 202/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 202/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 140/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 33/215

2.5 billion bbl (2014)

Refined petroleum products - production 141/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 125/212

22,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 142/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 106/213

22,160 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 140/216

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 204/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 200/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 147/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 78/212

14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 144/212

2.548 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 114/219

total subscriptions: 320,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 57/217

total: 20.4 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 57 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: mobile cellular service is increasing rapidly, but the number of main lines is still deficient; work underway on a national backbone information and communications technology infrastructure; international phone networks and Internet connectivity provided through satellite and VSAT applications

domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed-line and mobile-cellular systems for short-range traffic; mobile-cellular teledensity about 50 per 100 persons in 2010

international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog links to Kenya and Tanzania (2011)

Broadcast media

public broadcaster, Uganda Broadcasting Corporation (UBC), operates radio and TV networks; Uganda first began licensing privately owned stations in the 1990s; by 2007, there were nearly 150 radio and 35 TV stations, mostly based in and around Kampala; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available in Kampala (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 7, FM 33, shortwave 2 (2001)

Television broadcast stations

8 (plus 1 repeater) (2001)

Internet country code

.ug

Internet hosts 106/232

32,683 (2012)

Internet users 57/217

total: 6 million

percent of population: 16.8% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 93/236

47 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 5

over 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 42

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 8

914 to 1,523 m: 26

under 914 m: 7 (2013)

Railways 83/136

total: 1,244 km

narrow gauge: 1,244 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)

Roadways 109/223

total: 20,000 km (excludes local roads)

paved: 3,264 km

unpaved: 16,736 km (2011)

Waterways

(there are no long navigable stretches of river in Uganda; parts of the Albert Nile that flow out of Lake Albert in the northwestern part of the country are navigable; several lakes including Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga have substantial traffic; Lake Albert is navigable along a 200-km stretch from its northern tip to its southern shores) (2011)

Ports and terminals

lake port(s): Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell (Lake Victoria)

Military and Security

Military branches

Uganda People's Defense Force (UPDF): Land Forces (includes Marine Unit), Uganda Air Force (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18-26 years of age for voluntary military duty; 18-30 years of age for professionals; no conscription; 9-year service obligation; the government has stated that while recruitment under 18 years of age could occur with proper consent, "no person under the apparent age of 18 years shall be enrolled in the armed forces"; Ugandan citizenship and secondary education required (2012)

Military expenditures 67/132

2.2% of GDP (2013)

1.45% of GDP (2012)

3.73% of GDP (2011)

1.45% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Uganda is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces that extend across its borders; Ugandan refugees as well as members of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) seek shelter in southern Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Garamba National Park; LRA forces have also attacked Kenyan villages across the border

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 187,838 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 35,210 (Somalia); 16,601 (Rwanda) (2015); 203,068 (South Sudan); 32,039 (Burundi) (2016)

IDPs: 32,447 (displaced in northern Uganda because of fighting between government forces and the Lord's Resistance Army; as of 2011, most of the 1.8 million people displaced to IDP camps at the height of the conflict had returned home or resettled, but many had not found durable solutions; intercommunal violence and cattle raids) (2014)