Ukraine

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Ukraine was the center of the first eastern Slavic state, Kyivan Rus, which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state in Europe. Weakened by internecine quarrels and Mongol invasions, Kyivan Rus was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and eventually into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The cultural and religious legacy of Kyivan Rus laid the foundation for Ukrainian nationalism through subsequent centuries. A new Ukrainian state, the Cossack Hetmanate, was established during the mid-17th century after an uprising against the Poles. Despite continuous Muscovite pressure, the Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous for well over 100 years. During the latter part of the 18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire. Following the collapse of czarist Russia in 1917, Ukraine achieved a short-lived period of independence (1917-20), but was reconquered and endured a brutal Soviet rule that engineered two forced famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million died. In World War II, German and Soviet armies were responsible for 7 to 8 million more deaths. Although Ukraine achieved final independence in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, democracy and prosperity remained elusive as the legacy of state control and endemic corruption stalled efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil liberties.

A peaceful mass protest referred to as the "Orange Revolution" in the closing months of 2004 forced the authorities to overturn a rigged presidential election and to allow a new internationally monitored vote that swept into power a reformist slate under Viktor YUSHCHENKO. Subsequent internal squabbles in the YUSHCHENKO camp allowed his rival Viktor YANUKOVYCH to stage a comeback in parliamentary (Rada) elections, become prime minister in August 2006, and be elected president in February 2010. In October 2012, Ukraine held Rada elections, widely criticized by Western observers as flawed due to use of government resources to favor ruling party candidates, interference with media access, and harassment of opposition candidates. President YANUKOVYCH's backtracking on a trade and cooperation agreement with the EU in November 2013 - in favor of closer economic ties with Russia - and subsequent use of force against civil society activists in favor of the agreement led to a three-month protest occupation of Kyiv's central square. The government's use of violence to break up the protest camp in February 2014 led to all out pitched battles, scores of deaths, international condemnation, and the president's abrupt departure to Russia. New elections in the spring allowed pro-West president Petro POROSHENKO to assume office on 7 June 2014.

Shortly after YANUKOVYCH's departure in late February 2014, Russian President PUTIN ordered the invasion of Ukraine's Crimean Peninsula claiming the action was to protect ethnic Russians living there. Two weeks later, a "referendum" was held regarding the integration of Crimea into the Russian Federation. The "referendum" was condemned as illegitimate by the Ukrainian Government, the EU, the US, and the UN General Assembly. Although Russia illegally annexed Crimea after the "referendum," the Ukrainian Government asserts that Crimea remains part of Ukraine. Russia also continues to supply separatists in two of Ukraine's eastern provinces with manpower, funding, and materiel resulting in an armed conflict with the Ukrainian Government. Representatives from Ukraine, Russia, and the unrecognized separatist republics signed a ceasefire agreement in September 2014. However, this ceasefire failed to stop the fighting. In a renewed attempt to alleviate ongoing clashes, leaders of Ukraine, Russia, France, and Germany negotiated a follow-on peace deal in February 2015. Representatives from Ukraine, Russia, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe also meet regularly to facilitate implementation of the peace deal. Scattered fighting between Ukrainian and separatist forces is still occurring in eastern Ukraine.

Geography

Location

Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland, Romania, and Moldova in the west and Russia in the east

Geographic coordinates

49.00° N, 32.00° E

Area 46/257

total: 603,550 sq km

land: 579,330 sq km

water: 24,220 sq km

Area - comparative

almost four times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries

total: 5,618 km

border countries (7): Belarus 1,111 km, Hungary 128 km, Moldova 1,202 km, Poland 535 km, Romania 601 km, Russia 1,944 km, Slovakia 97 km

Coastline

2,782 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 m or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; warm summers across the greater part of the country, hot in the south

Terrain

mostly fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, with mountains found only in the west (the Carpathians) or in the extreme south of the Crimean Peninsula

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

highest point: Hora Hoverla 2,061 m

Natural resources

iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 71.2%

arable land 56.1%; permanent crops 1.5%; permanent pasture 13.6%

forest: 16.8%

other: 12% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

21,750 sq km (2010)

Total renewable water resources

139.6 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 19.24 cu km/yr (24%/69%/7%)

per capita: 415.7 cu m/yr (2010)

Natural hazards

NA

Environment - current issues

inadequate supplies of potable water; air and water pollution; deforestation; radiation contamination in the northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds

Geography - note

strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; second-largest country in Europe

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Ukrainian(s)

adjective: Ukrainian

Ethnic groups

Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%, Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001 est.)

Languages

Ukrainian (official) 67.5%, Russian (regional language) 29.6%, other (includes small Crimean Tatar-, Moldavian-, and Hungarian-speaking minorities) 2.9% (2001 est.)

note: 2012 legislation enables a language spoken by at least 10% of an oblast's population to be given the status of "regional language," allowing for its use in courts, schools, and other government institutions; Ukrainian remains the country's only official nationwide language

Religions

Orthodox (includes Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox (UAOC), Ukrainian Orthodox - Kyiv Patriarchate (UOC-KP), Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate (UOC-MP), Ukrainian Greek Catholic, Roman Catholic, Protestant, Muslim, Jewish

note: Ukraine's population is overwhelmingly Christian; the vast majority - up to two-thirds - identify themselves as Orthodox, but many do not specify a particular branch; the UOC-KP and the UOC-MP each represent less than a quarter of the country's population, the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church accounts for 8-10%, and the UAOC accounts for 1-2%; Muslim and Jewish adherents each compose less than 1% of the total population (2013 est.)

Population 32/238

44,429,471 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.22% (male 3,480,870/female 3,281,363)

15-24 years: 10.85% (male 2,470,594/female 2,349,313)

25-54 years: 44.63% (male 9,703,407/female 10,126,348)

55-64 years: 13.5% (male 2,563,195/female 3,435,022)

65 years and over: 15.8% (male 2,343,097/female 4,676,262) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 43.3%

youth dependency ratio: 21.4%

elderly dependency ratio: 21.9%

potential support ratio: 4.6% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 40.1 years

male: 37 years

female: 43.3 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 228/233

-0.6% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 182/224

10.72 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 2/225

14.46 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 171/222

-2.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 69.7% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: -0.33% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

KYIV (capital) 2.942 million; Kharkiv 1.441 million; Odesa 1.01 million; Dnipropetrovsk 957,000; Donetsk 934,000; Zaporizhzhya 753,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.75 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female

total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

25.8 (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 121/184

24 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 153/224

total: 8.12 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 9.03 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 7.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 148/224

total population: 71.57 years

male: 66.81 years

female: 76.63 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 191/224

1.53 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

65.4% (2012)

Health expenditures 66/191

7.8% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

3.54 physicians/1,000 population (2013)

Hospital bed density

9 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 95.5% of population

rural: 97.8% of population

total: 96.2% of population

unimproved:

urban: 4.5% of population

rural: 2.2% of population

total: 3.8% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 97.4% of population

rural: 92.6% of population

total: 95.9% of population

unimproved:

urban: 2.6% of population

rural: 7.4% of population

total: 4.1% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.83% (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

210,700 (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

13,400 (2013 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 89/191

21.7% (2014)

Education expenditures 35/173

6.7% of GDP (2012)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 15 years

female: 15 years (2013)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 67/134

total: 17.4%

male: 18.2%

female: 16.3% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Ukraine

local long form: none

local short form: Ukrayina

former: Ukrainian National Republic, Ukrainian State, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

note: name derives from the Old East Slavic word "ukraina" meaning borderland or march (militarized border region)

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Kyiv (Kiev)

note: pronounced KAY-yiv

geographic coordinates: 50.26° N, 30.31° E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

24 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast'), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonomna respublika), and 2 municipalities (mista, singular - misto) with oblast status**; Cherkasy, Chernihiv, Chernivtsi, Crimea or Avtonomna Respublika Krym* (Simferopol'), Dnipropetrovs'k, Donets'k, Ivano-Frankivs'k, Kharkiv, Kherson, Khmel'nyts'kyy, Kirovohrad, Kyiv**, Kyiv, Luhans'k, L'viv, Mykolayiv, Odesa, Poltava, Rivne, Sevastopol'**, Sumy, Ternopil', Vinnytsya, Volyn' (Luts'k), Zakarpattya (Uzhhorod), Zaporizhzhya, Zhytomyr

note 1: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

note 2: the United States does not recognize Russia's annexation of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol, nor their redesignation as the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol

Independence

24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: ca. 982 (VOLODYMYR I consolidates Kyivan Rus), 1648 (establishment of the Cossack Hetmanate)

National holiday

Independence Day, 24 August (1991); note - 22 January 1918, the day Ukraine first declared its independence (from Soviet Russia) and the day the short-lived Western and Greater (Eastern) Ukrainian republics united (1919), is now celebrated as Unity Day

Constitution

several previous; latest adopted and ratified 28 June 1996; amended 2004, 2010, 2015 (2015)

Legal system

civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Ukraine

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Petro POROSHENKO (since 7 June 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Arseniy YATSENYUK (since 27 February 2014)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, approved by the Verkhovna Rada

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 May 2014 (next to be held in 2019); prime minister nominated by the president, confirmed by the Verkhovna Rada

election results: Petro POROSHENKO elected president; percent of vote - Petro POROSHENKO (independent) 54.5%, Yuliya TYMOSHENKO (Fatherland) 12.9%, Oleh LYASHKO (Radical Party) 8.4%, other 24.2%

note: there is also a National Security and Defense Council or NSDC originally created in 1992 as the National Security Council; the NSDC staff is tasked with developing national security policy on domestic and international matters and advising the president; a presidential administration helps draft presidential edicts and provides policy support to the president

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Supreme Council or Verkhovna Rada (450 seats; 225 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 225 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - because of the Russian annexation of Crimea and the partial occupation of two eastern provinces, 27 of the 450 seats remain unfilled

elections: last held on 26 October 2014 (next to be held fall of 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party - NF 22.1%, BPP 21.8%, Samopomich 11.0%, OB 9.4%, Radical 7.4%, Batkivshchyna 5.7%, Svoboda 4.7%, CPU 3.9%, other 13.9%; seats by party - BPP 132, NF 82, Samopomich 33, OB 29, Radical 22, Batkivshchyna 19, Svoboda 6, other 4, independent 96, vacant 27; note - voting not held in Crimea and parts of two Russian-occupied eastern oblasts leaving 27 seats vacant; seats as of December 2015 - BPP 139, NF 81, OB 43, Samopomich 26, Vidrozhennya 23, Radical 21, Batkivshchyna 19, VN 20, independent 50, vacant 28

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Ukraine or SCU (consists of 95 judges organized into civil, criminal, commercial, and administrative chambers, and a military panel); Constitutional Court (consists of 18 justices)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges proposed by the Supreme Council of Justice or SCJ (a 20-member independent body of judicial officials and other appointees) and appointed by presidential decree; judges initially appointed for 5 years and, if approved by the SCJ, serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court justices appointed - 6 each by the president, by the SCU, and by the Verkhovna Rada; justices appointed for 9-year non-renewable terms

subordinate courts: specialized high courts; Courts of Cassation; Courts of Appeal; regional, district, city, and town courts

Political parties and leaders

Batkivshchyna ("Fatherland") [Yuliya TYMOSHENKO]

Bloc of Petro Poroshenko – Solidarnist or BPP [Vitali KLYCHKO] (formed from the merger of Solidarnist and UDAR)

Communist Party of Ukraine or CPU [Petro SYMONENKO] (banned as of July 2015)

Narodnyy Front ("People's Front") or NF [Arseniy YATSENIUK]

Opposition Bloc or OB [Yuriy BOYKO]

Radical Party [Oleh LYASHKO]

Samopomich ("Self Reliance") [Andriy SADOVYY]

Svoboda ("Freedom") [Oleh TYAHNYBOK]

Ukrainian Association of Patriots or UKROP [Hennadiy KORBAN]

Vidrozhennya ("Revival") [Vitaliy KHOMUTYNNIK] (parliamentary group)

Volya Naroda (“People's Will”) or VN (parliamentary group)

Political pressure groups and leaders

Centre UA [Oleh RYBACHUK]

Committee of Voters of Ukraine [Oleksandr CHERNENKO]

OPORA [Olha AIVAZOVSKA]

International organization participation

Australia Group, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CICA (observer), CIS (participating member, has not signed the 1993 CIS charter), EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow represent grain fields under a blue sky

National symbol(s)

tryzub (trident); national colors: blue, yellow

National anthem

name: "Shche ne vmerla Ukraina" (Ukraine Has Not Yet Perished)

lyrics/music: Paul CHUBYNSKYI/Mikhail VERBYTSKYI

note: music adopted 1991, lyrics adopted 2003; song first performed in 1864 at the Ukraine Theatre in Lviv; the lyrics, originally written in 1862, were revised in 2003

Economy

Economy - overview

After Russia, the Ukrainian republic was the most important economic component of the former Soviet Union, producing about four times the output of the next-ranking republic. Its fertile black soil generated more than one-fourth of Soviet agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of meat, milk, grain, and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its diversified heavy industry supplied the unique equipment (for example, large diameter pipes) and raw materials to industrial and mining sites (vertical drilling apparatus) in other regions of the former USSR.

Shortly after independence in August 1991, the Ukrainian Government liberalized most prices and erected a legal framework for privatization, but widespread resistance to reform within the government and the legislature soon stalled reform efforts and led to some backtracking. Output by 1999 had fallen to less than 40% of the 1991 level. Outside institutions - particularly the IMF –encouraged Ukraine to quicken the pace and scope of reforms to foster economic growth. Ukrainian Government officials eliminated most tax and customs privileges in a March 2005 budget law, bringing more economic activity out of Ukraine's large shadow economy, but more improvements are needed, including fighting corruption, developing capital markets, and improving the legislative framework. From 2000 until mid-2008, Ukraine's economy was buoyant despite political turmoil between the prime minister and president.

Ukraine's dependence on Russia for energy supplies and the lack of significant structural reform have made the Ukrainian economy vulnerable to external shocks. Ukraine depends on imports to meet about three-fourths of its annual oil and natural gas requirements and 100% of its nuclear fuel needs. In January 2009, after a two-week dispute that saw gas supplies cutoff to Europe, Ukraine agreed to 10-year gas supply and transit contracts with Russia that brought gas prices to "world" levels. The strict terms of the contracts further hobbled Ukraine's cash-strapped state gas company, Naftohaz. The economy contracted nearly 15% in 2009, among the worst economic performances in the world. In April 2010, Ukraine negotiated a price discount on Russian gas imports in exchange for extending Russia's lease on its naval base in Crimea.

Movement toward an Association Agreement with the European Union, which would commit Ukraine to economic and financial reforms in exchange for preferential access to EU markets, was curtailed by a November 2013 decision of President YANUKOVYCH. In response, on 17 December 2013 then President YANUKOVYCH and President PUTIN concluded a financial assistance package containing $15 billion in loans and lower gas prices. However, the end of the YANUKOVYCH government in February 2014 caused Russia to halt further funding. With the formation of an interim government in late February 2014, the international community began efforts to stabilize the Ukrainian economy, including a 27 March 2014 IMF assistance package of $14-18 billion. Russia’s seizure of the Crimean Peninsula created uncertainty as to the annual rate of growth of the Ukrainian economy in 2014.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 50/230

$334.2 billion (2015 est.)

$375.5 billion (2014 est.)

$403 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$90.14 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 222/225

-11% (2015 est.)

-6.8% (2014 est.)

0% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 148/230

$8,000 (2015 est.)

$8,800 (2014 est.)

$9,400 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 148/179

9.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

10.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

9.3% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 69.1%

government consumption: 22.1%

investment in fixed capital: 9.8%

investment in inventories: 0%

exports of goods and services: 60.2%

imports of goods and services: -61.2%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 13.3%

industry: 24.4%

services: 62.7%

(2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables; beef, milk

Industries

coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food processing

Industrial production growth rate 199/202

-15% (2015 est.)

Labor force 31/233

19.59 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 5.6%

industry: 26%

services: 68.4%

(2012)

Unemployment rate 117/207

10.5% (2015 est.)

9.3% (2014 est.)

note: officially registered; large number of unregistered or underemployed workers

Population below poverty line

24.1% (2010 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.8%

highest 10%: 22.5% (2011 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 127/144

28.2 (2009)

29 (1999)

Budget

revenues: $25.43 billion

expenditures: $29.36 billion

note: this is the planned, consolidated budget (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 95/219

28.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 155/220

-4.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 21/176

94.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

70.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: the total public debt of $64.5 billion consists of: domestic public debt ($23.8 billion); external public debt ($26.1 billion); and sovereign guarantees ($14.6 billion)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 225/226

49% (2015 est.)

12.1% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 2/156

22% (31 January 2012)

7.5% (31 December 2010)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 16/184

19% (31 December 2015 est.)

17.72% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 68/192

$17.16 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$27.62 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 60/193

$78.02 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$113.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 60/191

$55.03 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$95.93 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 65/121

$20.71 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$25.56 billion (31 December 2011)

$39.46 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 136/197

-$1.522 billion (2015 est.)

-$6.187 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 57/224

$37.61 billion (2015 est.)

$53.91 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

ferrous and nonferrous metals, fuel and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, foodstuffs

Exports - partners

Russia 18.2%, Turkey 6.6%, Egypt 5.3%, China 5%, Poland 4.9%, Italy 4.6% (2014)

Imports 59/223

$37.15 billion (2015 est.)

$54.38 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

energy, machinery and equipment, chemicals

Imports - partners

Russia 23.3%, China 10%, Germany 9.9%, Belarus 7.3%, Poland 5.6% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 72/170

$13.15 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$7.53 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 46/206

$127.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$142.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home 54/120

$61.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$57.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad 63/105

$7.945 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$7.145 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

hryvnia (UAH) per US dollar -

22.99 (2015 est.)

11.8867 (2014 est.)

11.8867 (2013 est.)

7.99 (2012 est.)

7.9676 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 22/220

187.1 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 23/219

159.8 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 27/218

6 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - imports 95/219

89 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 19/214

55.19 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 124/214

63.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 7/214

23.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 116/214

9.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 94/212

1.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 60/214

40,490 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 83/214

1,218 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 58/214

33,020 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 54/215

395 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 69/214

118,700 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 47/212

255,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 66/214

35,020 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 32/213

175,100 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 30/216

21.1 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 20/215

47 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 201/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 14/214

25.9 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 24/212

1.104 trillion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 24/212

290.4 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 20/219

total subscriptions: 10.46 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 23 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 25/217

total: 61.2 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 136 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: Ukraine's telecommunication development plan emphasizes improving domestic trunk lines, international connections, and the mobile-cellular system

domestic: at independence in December 1991, Ukraine inherited a telephone system that was antiquated, inefficient, and in disrepair; more than 3.5 million applications for telephones could not be satisfied; telephone density is rising and the domestic trunk system is being improved; about one-third of Ukraine's networks are digital, and a majority of regional centers now have digital switching stations; improvements in local networks and local exchanges continue to lag; the mobile-cellular telephone system's expansion has slowed, largely due to saturation of the market which has reached 125 mobile phones per 100 people

international: country code - 380; 2 new domestic trunk lines are a part of the fiber-optic Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) system and 3 Ukrainian links have been installed in the fiber-optic Trans-European Lines (TEL) project that connects 18 countries; additional international service is provided by the Italy-Turkey-Ukraine-Russia (ITUR) fiber-optic submarine cable and by an unknown number of earth stations in the Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2010)

Broadcast media

state-controlled nationwide TV broadcast channel (UT1) and a number of privately owned TV networks provide basic TV coverage; multi-channel cable and satellite TV services are available; Russian television broadcasts have a small audience nationwide, but larger audiences in the eastern and southern regions; the radio broadcast market, a mix of independent and state-owned networks, is comprised of some 300 stations (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

524 (station frequency types NA) (2006)

Television broadcast stations

647 (2006)

Internet country code

.ua

Internet hosts 37/232

2.173 million (2012)

Internet users 32/217

total: 16.8 million

percent of population: 37.5% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 31/236

187 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 108

over 3,047 m: 13

2,438 to 3,047 m: 42

1,524 to 2,437 m: 22

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 28 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 79

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 69 (2013)

Heliports

9 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 36,720 km; oil 4,514 km; refined products 4,363 km (2013)

Railways 12/136

total: 21,733 km

broad gauge: 21,684 km 1.524-m gauge (9,250 km electrified)

standard gauge: 49 km 1.435-m gauge (49 km electrified) (2014)

Roadways 29/223

total: 169,694 km

paved: 166,095 km (includes 17 km of expressways)

unpaved: 3,599 km (2012)

Waterways 46/107

1,672 km (most on Dnieper River) (2012)

Merchant marine 43/156

total: 134

by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 98, chemical tanker 1, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 11, specialized tanker 2

registered in other countries: 172 (Belize 6, Cambodia 35, Comoros 10, Cyprus 3, Dominica 1, Georgia 10, Liberia 10, Malta 29, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 14, Mongolia 1, Panama 8, Russia 12, Saint Kitts and Nevis 8, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 12, Sierra Leone 5, Slovakia 2, unknown 5) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Feodosiya (Theodosia), Illichivsk, Mariupol', Mykolayiv, Odesa, Yuzhnyy

Military and Security

Military branches

Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air Forces (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18-27 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 18 months (2015)

Military expenditures 26/132

3% of GDP (2016 requested)

2.7% of GDP (2015)

1.77% of GDP (2014)

0.97% of GDP (2013)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

1997 boundary delimitation treaty with Belarus remains unratified due to unresolved financial claims, stalling demarcation and reducing border security; delimitation of land boundary with Russia is complete and demarcation began in 2012; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov is suspended due to the occupation of Crimea by Russia; Ukraine and Moldova signed an agreement officially delimiting their border in 1999, but the border has not been demarcated due to Moldova's difficulties with the break-away region of Transnistria; Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor transit of people and commodities through Moldova's Transnistria Region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops; the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 800,000 (Russian-sponsored separatist violence in Crimea and eastern Ukraine) (2015); note - revised figure reflects updates to UN's IDP verification and registration processes

stateless persons: 35,335 (2014); note - citizens of the former USSR who were permanently resident in Ukraine were granted citizenship upon Ukraine's independence in 1991, but some missed this window of opportunity; people arriving after 1991, Crimean Tatars, ethnic Koreans, people with expired Soviet passports, and people with no documents have difficulty acquiring Ukrainian citizenship; following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1989, thousands of Crimean Tatars and their descendants deported from Ukraine under the STALIN regime returned to their homeland, some being stateless and others holding the citizenship of Uzbekistan or other former Soviet republics; a 1998 bilateral agreement between Ukraine and Uzbekistan simplified the process of renouncing Uzbek citizenship and obtaining Ukrainian citizenship

Illicit drugs

limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; some synthetic drug production for export to the West; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Africa, Latin America, and Turkey to Europe and Russia; Ukraine has improved anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in February 2004; Ukraine's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF