Yemen

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North Yemen became independent from the Ottoman Empire in 1918. The British, who had set up a protectorate area around the southern port of Aden in the 19th century, withdrew in 1967 from what became South Yemen. Three years later, the southern government adopted a Marxist orientation. The massive exodus of hundreds of thousands of Yemenis from the south to the north contributed to two decades of hostility between the states. The two countries were formally unified as the Republic of Yemen in 1990. A southern secessionist movement and brief civil war in 1994 was quickly subdued. In 2000, Saudi Arabia and Yemen agreed to delineate their border. Fighting in the northwest between the government and the Huthis, a Zaydi Shia minority, began in 2004 and has since resulted in six rounds of fighting that ended in early 2010 with a cease-fire. The southern secessionist movement was revitalized in 2008. Public rallies in Sana'a against then President SALIH - inspired by similar demonstrations in Tunisia and Egypt - slowly built momentum starting in late January 2011 fueled by complaints over high unemployment, poor economic conditions, and corruption. By the following month, some protests had resulted in violence, and the demonstrations had spread to other major cities. By March the opposition had hardened its demands and was unifying behind calls for SALIH's immediate ouster. In in late April 2011. the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), in an attempt to mediate the crisis in Yemen, proposed the GGC Initiative, an agreement in which the president would step down in exchange for immunity from prosecution. SALIH's refusal to sign an agreement led to further violence. The UN Security Council passed Resolution 2014 in October 2011 calling for an end to the violence and completing a power transfer deal. In late November 2011, SALIH signed the GCC Initiative to step down and to transfer some of his powers to Vice President Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI. Following HADI's election victory in February 2012, SALIH formally transferred his powers. In accordance with the GCC initiative, Yemen launched a National Dialogue Conference (NDC) in March 2013 to discuss key constitutional, political, and social issues. HADI concluded the NDC in January 2014. Subsequent steps in the transition process include constitutional drafting, a constitutional referendum, and national elections. Since the Arab Awakening in 2011, the Huthis have expanded their influence, culminating in a major offensive against military units and tribes affiliated with their Yemeni rivals and enabling their forces to overrun the capital, Sana'a, in September 2014. In January 2015, the Huthis attacked the presidential palace and President HADI's residence and surrounded key government facilities, prompting HADI and the cabinet to submit their resignations. HADI fled to Aden, and in late February he rescinded his resignation. He subsequently escaped to Saudi Arabia and asked the GCC to intervene militarily in Yemen to protect the legitimate government from the Huthis. In late March, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia launched Operation Decisive Storm, a series of airstrikes against Huthi and Huthi-affiliated forces. In late April, the Saudi Government announced completion of the operation and initiated Operation Restoring Hope, which focuses on humanitarian aid and a return to political dialogue. As of late April 2015, the Huthis controlled much of western Yemen.

Geography

Location

Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates

15.00° N, 48.00° E

Area 50/257

total: 527,968 sq km

land: 527,968 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes Perim, Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or North Yemen), and the former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY or South Yemen)

Area - comparative

almost four times the size of Alabama; slightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming

Land boundaries

total: 1,601 km

border countries (2): Oman 294 km, Saudi Arabia 1,307 km

Coastline

1,906 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate

mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east

Terrain

narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m

highest point: Jabal an Nabi Shu'ayb 3,760 m

Natural resources

petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble; small deposits of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper; fertile soil in west

Land use

agricultural land: 44.5%

arable land 2.2%; permanent crops 0.6%; permanent pasture 41.7%

forest: 1%

other: 54.5% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

6,801 sq km (2004)

Total renewable water resources

2.1 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 3.57 cu km/yr (7%/2%/91%)

per capita: 162.4 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards

sandstorms and dust storms in summer

volcanism: limited volcanic activity; Jebel at Tair (Jabal al-Tair, Jebel Teir, Jabal al-Tayr, Jazirat at-Tair) (elev. 244 m), which forms an island in the Red Sea, erupted in 2007 after awakening from dormancy; other historically active volcanoes include Harra of Arhab, Harras of Dhamar, Harra es-Sawad, and Jebel Zubair, although many of these have not erupted in over a century

Environment - current issues

limited natural freshwater resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

strategic location on Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Yemeni(s)

adjective: Yemeni

Ethnic groups

predominantly Arab; but also Afro-Arab, South Asians, Europeans

Languages

Arabic (official)

note: a distinct Socotri language is widely used on Socotra Island and Archipelago; Mahri is still fairly widely spoken in eastern Yemen

Religions

Muslim 99.1% (official; virtually all are citizens, an estimated 65% are Sunni and 35% are Shia), other 0.9% (includes Jewish, Baha'i, Hindu, and Christian; many are refugees or temporary foreign residents) (2010 est.)

Population 48/238

26,737,317 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 41.09% (male 5,588,316/female 5,399,365)

15-24 years: 21.12% (male 2,865,453/female 2,782,109)

25-54 years: 31.33% (male 4,280,258/female 4,096,280)

55-64 years: 3.79% (male 468,869/female 543,336)

65 years and over: 2.67% (male 330,966/female 382,365) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 75.6%

youth dependency ratio: 70.7%

elderly dependency ratio: 4.9%

potential support ratio: 20.4% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 18.9 years

male: 18.8 years

female: 19 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 25/233

2.47% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 42/224

29.98 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 154/225

6.28 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 63/222

1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 34.6% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 4.03% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

SANAA (capital) 2.962 million; Aden 882,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

21.4

median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013)

Maternal mortality rate 57/184

385 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 38/224

total: 48.93 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 53.14 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 44.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 176/224

total population: 65.18 years

male: 63.05 years

female: 67.41 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 40/224

3.91 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

27.7% (2006)

Health expenditures 124/191

5.4% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2010)

Hospital bed density

0.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 72% of population

rural: 46.5% of population

total: 54.9% of population

unimproved:

urban: 28% of population

rural: 53.5% of population

total: 45.1% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 92.5% of population

rural: 34.1% of population

total: 53.3% of population

unimproved:

urban: 7.5% of population

rural: 65.9% of population

total: 46.7% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.05% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

7,200 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

300 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 121/191

14.2% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 3/138

35.5% (2011)

Education expenditures 67/173

4.6% of GDP (2008)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 9 years

male: 11 years

female: 8 years (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 22/134

total: 33.7%

male: 26%

female: 74% (2010 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Yemen

conventional short form: Yemen

local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah

local short form: Al Yaman

former: Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Sanaa

geographic coordinates: 15.21° N, 44.12° E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

21 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah) and 1 municipality*; Abyan, 'Adan (Aden), Ad Dali', Al Bayda', Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al Mahwit, Amanat al 'Asimah (Sanaa City)*, 'Amran, Arkhabil Suqutra (Socotra Archipelago), Dhamar, Hadramawt, Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij, Ma'rib, Raymah, Sa'dah, San'a' (Sanaa), Shabwah, Ta'izz

Independence

22 May 1990 (Republic of Yemen was established with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]); note - previously North Yemen became independent in November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and became a republic with the overthrow of the theocratic Imamate in 1962; South Yemen became independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)

National holiday

Unification Day, 22 May (1990)

Constitution

adopted by referendum 16 May 1991 (following unification); amended several times, last in 2009; note - after the National Dialogue ended in January 2015, a presidentially-appointed Constitutional Drafting Committee worked to prepare a new draft constitution that was expected to be put to a national referendum before being adopted; however, the president’s resignation in January 2015 and the subsequent conflict interrupted the process (2015)

Legal system

mixed legal system of Islamic law, Napoleonic law, English common law, and customary law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Yemen; if the father is unknown, the mother must be a citizen

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI (since 21 February 2012); note - President HADI submitted his resignation in late January 2015, but Parliament did not convene to accept it; he later rescinded his resignation and remains the internationally recognized president of Yemen; he fled to Saudi Arabia in late March 2015 but returned in November after anti-Huthi forces aided by a Saudi-led coalition regained control of Aden from the Huthis in July

head of government: Prime Minister Khalid Mahfuz BAHAH; note - BAHAH submitted his resignation in late January 2015, but Parliament did not convene to accept it; BAHAH later rescinded his resignation and remains prime minister; on 13 April he was named vice president and holds both positions; he returned to Yemen temporarily in September 2015 but continues to be based outside the country

cabinet: appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); last election held on 21 February 2012 (next election NA); note - a special election held on 21 February 2012 to remove Ali Abdallah SALIH under the terms of a Gulf Cooperation Council-mediated deal during the political crisis of 2011; vice president appointed by the president; prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI (GPC) elected as a consensus president with about 50% popular participation; no other candidates

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Majlis consists of the Shura Council or Majlis Alshoora (111 seats; members appointed by the president; member tenure NA) and the House of Representatives or Majlis al Nuwaab (301 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 6-year terms)

elections: last held on 27 April 2003 (next scheduled for April 2009 but postponed indefinitely)

election results: House of Representatives percent of vote by party - GPC 58%, Islah 22.6%, YSP 3.8%, Unionist Party 1.9%, other 13.7%; seats by party - GPC 238, Islah 46, YSP 8, Nasserite Unionist Party 3, National Arab Socialist Ba'th Party 2, independent 4

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the president of the Court, 2 deputies, and nearly 50 judges; court organized into constitutional, civil, commercial, family, administrative, criminal, military, and appeals scrutiny divisions)

judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the Supreme Judicial Council, chaired by the president of the republic and consisting of 10 high-ranking judicial officers; judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65

subordinate courts: appeal courts; district or first instance courts; commercial courts

Political parties and leaders

Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party

General People's Congress or GPC [Ali Abdallah SALIH]

Nasserite Unionist Popular Organization [Abdallah NU'MAN]

Yemeni Reform Grouping or Islah [Muhammed Abdallah al-YADUMI, Abdul Wahab al-ANSI]

Yemeni Socialist Party or YSP [Dr. Abd al-Rahman Umar al-SAQQAF]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Huthis

Muslim Brotherhood

Women National Committee

other: conservative tribal groups; southern secessionist groups; al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)

International organization participation

AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CD, EITI (temporarily suspended), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white)

note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, and of Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt, which has a heraldic eagle centered in the white band

National symbol(s)

golden eagle; national colors: red, white, black

National anthem

name: "al-qumhuriyatu l-muttahida" (United Republic)

lyrics/music: Abdullah Abdulwahab NOA'MAN/Ayyoab Tarish ABSI

note: adopted 1990; the music first served as the anthem for South Yemen before unification with North Yemen in 1990

Economy

Economy - overview

Yemen is a low-income country that faces difficult long-term challenges to stabilizing and growing its economy. War in 2015 nearly brought the country’s exports to a halt, pressured the Yemeni currency’s exchange rate, accelerated inflation, severely limited food and fuel imports, and caused widespread damage to infrastructure. Approximately 80% of the population was in need of humanitarian assistance by the end of 2015.

Prior to the start of the conflict in 2014, Yemen was highly dependent on declining oil resources for revenue. Oil and gas revenues accounted for roughly 25% of GDP and 65% of government revenue. The Yemeni Government regularly faces annual budget shortfalls and has tried to diversify the Yemeni economy through a reform program designed to bolster non-oil sectors of the economy and foreign investment. As part of these reform efforts Yemen exported its first liquefied natural gas in October 2009. The international community supported Yemen’s efforts toward economic and political reform in part by establishing the Friends of Yemen group. In 2012, the Friends of Yemen pledged nearly $7 billion in assistance to Yemen. In July 2014, the government continued reform efforts by eliminating some fuel subsidies and in August 2014, the IMF approved a three-year, $570 million Extended Credit Facility for Yemen. The conflict in 2015 has stalled these reform efforts, however.

Yemen will continue to need international assistance during and after the protracted conflict to stabilize its economy. Long-term challenges include a high population growth rate, high unemployment, declining water resources, and severe food scarcity.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 92/230

$75.52 billion (2015 est.)

$105 billion (2014 est.)

$105.2 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$34.93 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 225/225

-28.1% (2015 est.)

-0.2% (2014 est.)

4.8% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 194/230

$2,800 (2015 est.)

$3,800 (2014 est.)

$3,800 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 175/179

-2.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

6.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

5% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 102.9%

government consumption: 11.7%

investment in fixed capital: 8.9%

investment in inventories: -5.2%

exports of goods and services: 8.5%

imports of goods and services: -26.8%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 19%

industry: 10.6%

services: 70.4% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

grain, fruits, vegetables, pulses, qat, coffee, cotton; dairy products, livestock (sheep, goats, cattle, camels), poultry; fish

Industries

crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of cotton textiles, leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; aluminum products; cement; commercial ship repair; natural gas production

Industrial production growth rate 202/202

-72% (2015 est.)

Labor force 65/233

7.328 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

note: most people are employed in agriculture and herding; services, construction, industry, and commerce account for less than one-fourth of the labor force

Unemployment rate 182/207

27% (2014 est.)

35% (2003 est.)

Population below poverty line

54% (2014 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.6%

highest 10%: 30.3% (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 75/144

37.9 (2009 est.)

37.3 (1999 est.)

Budget

revenues: $2.933 billion

expenditures: $5.925 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 135/219

23.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 200/220

-8.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 23/176

93.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

57.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 222/226

30% (2015 est.)

8.2% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate

NA%

Commercial bank prime lending rate 6/184

25% (31 December 2015 est.)

24% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 102/192

$4.388 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$5.256 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 95/193

$16.02 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$14.04 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 108/191

$8.452 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$12.78 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$NA

Current account balance 142/197

-$1.837 billion (2015 est.)

-$715 million (2014 est.)

Exports 151/224

$1.416 billion (2015 est.)

$8.291 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

crude oil, coffee, dried and salted fish, liquefied natural gas

Exports - partners

China 28.3%, South Korea 23%, Thailand 11.2%, Japan 8.1%, UAE 5.3% (2014)

Imports 120/223

$5.491 billion (2015 est.)

$10.19 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

food and live animals, machinery and equipment, chemicals

Imports - partners

China 15.9%, UAE 14%, India 9.6%, Saudi Arabia 6.6%, Kuwait 5%, Turkey 4.6% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 117/170

$2.309 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$4.665 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 114/206

$7.772 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$7.671 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$NA

Exchange rates

Yemeni rials (YER) per US dollar -

214.89 (2015 est.)

214.89 (2014 est.)

214.89 (2013 est.)

214.35 (2012 est.)

213.8 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 112/220

6.185 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 126/219

3.838 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 218/218

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports 219/219

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 116/214

1.535 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 39/214

99.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 212/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 155/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 118/212

0.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 41/214

125,100 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 49/214

43,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - imports 85/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 30/215

3 billion bbl (1 January 2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 88/214

27,840 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 69/212

134,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 72/214

20,840 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 47/213

110,600 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 42/216

10.3 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 95/215

700 million cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 21/215

9.6 billion cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 84/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 31/212

478.5 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 80/212

21.28 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 71/219

total subscriptions: 1.17 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 62/217

total: 17.1 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 66 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: since unification in 1990, efforts have been made to create a national telecommunications network

domestic: the national network consists of microwave radio relay, cable, tropospheric scatter, GSM and CDMA mobile-cellular telephone systems; fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity remains low by regional standards

international: country code - 967; landing point for the international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 2 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and Djibouti (2006)

Broadcast media

state-run TV with 2 stations; state-run radio with 2 national radio stations and 5 local stations; stations from Oman and Saudi Arabia can be accessed (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 6, FM 1, shortwave 2 (1998)

Television broadcast stations

3 (including one Egypt-based station that broadcasts in Yemen); plus several repeaters (2007)

Internet country code

.ye

Internet hosts 105/232

33,206 (2012)

Internet users 67/217

total: 5 million

percent of population: 19.1% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 84/236

57 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 17

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 40

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 16

under 914 m: 9 (2013)

Pipelines

gas 641 km; liquid petroleum gas 22 km; oil 1,370 km (2013)

Roadways 66/223

total: 71,300 km

paved: 6,200 km

unpaved: 65,100 km (2005)

Merchant marine 126/156

total: 5

by type: chemical tanker 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1

registered in other countries: 14 (Moldova 4, Panama 4, Sierra Leone 2, Togo 1, unknown 3) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Aden, Al Hudaydah, Al Mukalla

Military and Security

Military branches

Land Forces, Naval and Coastal Defense Forces (includes Marines), Air and Air Defense Force (al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Yemeniya), Border Guards, Strategic Reserve Forces (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription; 2-year service obligation (2012)

Military expenditures 12/132

4.02% of GDP (2012)

3.48% of GDP (2011)

4.02% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Saudi Arabia has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the fully demarcated border with Yemen to stem illegal cross-border activities

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 253,215 (Somalia); 13,643 (Ethiopia) (includes asylum seekers) (2015)

IDPs: 2,509,068 (conflict in Sa'ada Governorate; clashes between AQAP and government forces) (2015)