Zambia

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The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the former British South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices, economic mismanagement, and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule and propelled the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) to government. The subsequent vote in 1996, however, saw increasing harassment of opposition parties and abuse of state media and other resources. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems, with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his death in August 2008, he was succeeded by his vice president, Rupiah BANDA, who won a special presidential byelection later that year. The MMD and BANDA lost to the Patriotic Front (PF) and Michael SATA in the 2011 general elections. SATA, however, presided over a period of haphazard economic management and attempted to silence opposition to PF policies. SATA died in October 2014 and was succeeded by his vice president, Guy SCOTT, who served as interim president until special elections were held in January 2015. Edgar LUNGU won the presidential byelection and will complete SATA's term, which expires in late 2016.

Geography

Location

Southern Africa, east of Angola, south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates

15.00° S, 30.00° E

Area 39/257

total: 752,618 sq km

land: 743,398 sq km

water: 9,220 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries

total: 6,043.15 km

border countries (8): Angola 1,065 km, Botswana 0.15 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,332 km, Malawi 847 km, Mozambique 439 km, Namibia 244 km, Tanzania 353 km, Zimbabwe 763 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)

Terrain

mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains

Elevation

mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m

highest point: unnamed elevation in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m

Natural resources

copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 31.7%

arable land 4.8%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 26.9%

forest: 66.3%

other: 2% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

1,559 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources

105.2 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 1.57 cu km/yr (18%/8%/73%)

per capita: 147 cu m/yr (2002)

Natural hazards

periodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)

Environment - current issues

air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Zambian(s)

adjective: Zambian

Ethnic groups

Bemba 21%, Tonga 13.6%, Chewa 7.4%, Lozi 5.7%, Nsenga 5.3%, Tumbuka 4.4%, Ngoni 4%, Lala 3.1%, Kaonde 2.9%, Namwanga 2.8%, Lunda (north Western) 2.6%, Mambwe 2.5%, Luvale 2.2%, Lamba 2.1%, Ushi 1.9%, Lenje 1.6%, Bisa 1.6%, Mbunda 1.2%, other 13.8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)

Languages

Bembe 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Lozi 5.5%, Chewa 4.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (North Western) 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English (official) 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.2%, unspecified 0.4%

note: Zambia is said to have over 70 languages, although many of these may be considered dialects; all of Zambia's major languages are members of the Bantu family (2010 est.)

Religions

Protestant 75.3%, Roman Catholic 20.2%, other 2.7% (includes Muslim Buddhist, Hindu, and Baha'i), none 1.8% (2010 est.)

Population 70/238

15,066,266

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 46.12% (male 3,490,151/female 3,458,035)

15-24 years: 20.02% (male 1,506,925/female 1,509,554)

25-54 years: 28.6% (male 2,171,292/female 2,136,987)

55-64 years: 2.89% (male 204,767/female 230,244)

65 years and over: 2.38% (male 155,179/female 203,132) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 95.4%

youth dependency ratio: 89.7%

elderly dependency ratio: 5.7%

potential support ratio: 17.6% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 16.7 years

male: 16.6 years

female: 16.8 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 11/233

2.88% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 4/224

42.13 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 21/225

12.67 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 142/222

-0.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 40.9% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 4.32% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

LUSAKA (capital) 2.179 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

19.3

note: median age at first birth among women 20-24 (2013/14 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 26/184

224 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 17/224

total: 64.72 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 70.19 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 59.09 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 216/224

total population: 52.15 years

male: 50.54 years

female: 53.81 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 7/224

5.72 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

40.8% (2007)

Health expenditures 95/191

5% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

0.17 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density

2 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 85.6% of population

rural: 51.3% of population

total: 65.4% of population

unimproved:

urban: 14.4% of population

rural: 48.7% of population

total: 34.6% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 55.6% of population

rural: 35.7% of population

total: 43.9% of population

unimproved:

urban: 44.4% of population

rural: 64.3% of population

total: 56.1% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

12.37% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

1,150,400 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

18,900 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 174/191

7.2% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 49/138

14.9% (2007)

Education expenditures 170/173

1.3% of GDP (2008)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 42/134

total: 15.2%

male: 14.6%

female: 15.8% (2012 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Zambia

conventional short form: Zambia

former: Northern Rhodesia

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Lusaka

geographic coordinates: 15.25° S, 28.17° E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

10 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Muchinga, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western

Independence

24 October 1964 (from the UK)

National holiday

Independence Day, 24 October (1964)

Constitution

several previous; latest adopted 24 August 1991, promulgated 30 August 1991; amended 1996; note - In late 2015, the minister of justice presented an amendment bill to the National Assembly

Legal system

mixed legal system of English common law and customary law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent: yes

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: not specified

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president from among members of the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); special presidential election held on 20 January 2015 to complete President SATA's term in office (next to be held in late 2016); SATA died 28 October 2014; vice president appointed by the president

election results: Edgar LUNGU elected president; percent of vote - Edgar LUNGU (PF) 48.8%, Hakainde HICHILEMA (UPND) 47.2%, other 4%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly (158 seats; 150 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, and 8 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 20 September 2011 (next to be held in 2016); note - over 25 by-elections, prompted by resignation, death, change of party or legal nullification have taken place since September 2011

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PF 60, MMD 55, UPND 28, ADD 1, FDD 1, independent 3, seats not determined 10; note - seats as of September 2015 - PF 84, MMD 34, UPND 31, ADD 1, FDD 1, independent 2, other 5

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, deputy chief justice, and 7 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the 9-member Judicial Service Commission - headed by the chief justice, and ratified by the National Assembly; judges normally serve until age 65

subordinate courts: High Court (competence on constitutional issues); Industrial Relations Court; Subordinate Court; magistrate's courts and local courts

Political parties and leaders

Alliance for Democracy and Development or ADD [Charles MILUPI]

Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]

Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Nevers MUMBA]

Patriotic Front or PF [Edgar LUNGU]

United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description

green field with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag; green stands for the country's natural resources and vegetation, red symbolizes the struggle for freedom, black the people of Zambia, and orange the country's mineral wealth; the eagle represents the people's ability to rise above the nation's problems

National symbol(s)

African fish eagle; national colors: green, red, black, orange

National anthem

name: "Lumbanyeni Zambia" (Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free)

lyrics/music: multiple/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA

note: adopted 1964; the melody, from the popular song "God Bless Africa," is the same as that of Tanzania but with different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem

Economy

Economy - overview

Zambia has had one of the world’s fastest growing economies for the past ten years, with real GDP growth averaging roughly 6.7% per annum. Zambia's dependency on copper makes it vulnerable to depressed commodity prices, but record high copper prices and a bumper maize crop in 2010 helped Zambia rebound quickly from the world economic slowdown that began in 2008. Privatization of government-owned copper mines in the 1990s relieved the government from covering mammoth losses generated by the industry and greatly increased copper mining output and profitability, spurring economic growth. Copper output increased steadily from 2004, due to higher copper prices and foreign investment, but weakened in 2014, and Zambia was overtaken by the Democratic Republic of Congo as Africa’s largest copper producer.

Despite strong economic growth and its status as a lower middle-income country, widespread and extreme rural poverty and high unemployment levels remain significant problems, made worse by a high birth rate, a relatively high HIV/AIDS burden, and by market-distorting agricultural policies. Economic policy inconsistency and poor budget execution in recent years has hindered the economy and contributed to weakness in the kwacha, which was Africa’s worst performing currency during 2014. Zambia has raised $3 billion from international investors by issuing separate sovereign bonds in September 2012, April 2014, and July 2015, significantly increasing the country’s public debt as a share of GDP.

Zambia’s economy in 2015 took hits from greatly depressed copper prices and a drought that has caused a significant cut in power generation.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 99/230

$64.65 billion (2015 est.)

$61.99 billion (2014 est.)

$58.69 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$24.47 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 54/225

4.3% (2015 est.)

5.6% (2014 est.)

6.7% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 176/230

$4,300 (2015 est.)

$4,100 (2014 est.)

$3,900 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 21/179

29.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

29.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

33% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 52.6%

government consumption: 20.9%

investment in fixed capital: 25.3%

investment in inventories: 1.1%

exports of goods and services: 40.7%

imports of goods and services: -40.6%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 8.6%

industry: 31.3%

services: 60% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seeds, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), coffee; cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides

Industries

copper mining and processing, emerald mining, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture

Industrial production growth rate 110/202

2.2% (2015 est.)

Labor force 66/233

6.906 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 85%

industry: 6%

services: 9% (2004)

Unemployment rate 149/207

15% (2008 est.)

50% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line

60.5% (2010 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.5%

highest 10%: 47.4% (2010)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 10/144

57.5 (2010)

50.8 (2004)

Budget

revenues: $3.643 billion

expenditures: $5.189 billion (2015 est.)

Taxes and other revenues 194/219

14.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 183/220

-6.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Public debt 61/176

60.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

37.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 192/226

7.5% (2015 est.)

7.8% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 35/156

8.39% (31 December 2009)

14.49% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 61/184

12.5% (31 December 2015 est.)

11.57% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 148/192

$1.137 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.118 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of broad money 126/193

$5.682 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$5.437 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 129/191

$3.111 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$5.006 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 94/121

$3.004 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$4.009 billion (31 December 2011)

$2.817 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance 88/197

-$341 million (2015 est.)

-$360 million (2014 est.)

Exports 103/224

$6.316 billion (2015 est.)

$10.22 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

copper/cobalt, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton

Exports - partners

Switzerland 23.4%, China 14.1%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 13.4%, South Africa 6.1%, UAE 4.9% (2014)

Imports 113/223

$6.798 billion (2015 est.)

$8.595 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer, foodstuffs, clothing

Imports - partners

South Africa 31.3%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 18.7%, China 9.3%, Kenya 8.3%, Algeria 5.9%, India 4.4% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 109/170

$2.716 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$3.078 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 120/206

$6.73 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$5.596 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$NA

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$NA

Exchange rates

Zambian kwacha (ZMK) per US dollar -

8.7 (2015 est.)

6.2 (2014 est.)

6.2 (2013 est.)

5.1 (2012 est.)

4,860.7 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production 92/220

11.73 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 96/219

8.327 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 64/218

606 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - imports 109/219

13 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 108/214

1.888 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 212/214

0.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 213/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 3/214

99.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 147/212

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 213/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 213/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 73/214

14,340 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 214/215

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 100/214

14,750 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 131/212

18,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 110/214

1,216 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 156/213

5,765 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 151/216

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 214/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 214/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 85/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 211/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 140/212

3.054 million Mt (2012 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines 144/219

total subscriptions: 110,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 86/217

total: 10.1 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 69 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: among the best in sub-Saharan Africa

domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation and network coverage is improving; domestic satellite system being installed to improve telephone service in rural areas; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms

international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 3 owned by Zamtel (2010)

Broadcast media

state-owned Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) operates 1 TV station and is the principal local-content provider; several private TV stations; multi-channel subscription TV services are available; ZNBC operates 3 radio networks; about 2 dozen private radio stations; relays of at least 2 international broadcasters are accessible in Lusaka and Kitwe (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 19, FM 5, shortwave 4 (2001)

Television broadcast stations

9 (2001)

Internet country code

.zm

Internet hosts 122/232

16,571 (2012)

Internet users 94/217

total: 2.3 million

percent of population: 15.4% (2014 est.)

Transportation

Airports 63/236

88 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 8

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 80

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 53

under 914 m: 21 (2013)

Pipelines

oil 771 km (2013)

Railways 58/136

total: 3,126 km

narrow gauge: 3,126 km 1.067-m gauge

note: includes 1,860 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA) (2014)

Roadways 86/223

total: 40,454 km

paved: 9,403 km

unpaved: 31,051 km (2005)

Waterways 37/107

2,250 km (includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula rivers) (2010)

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Mpulungu (Zambezi)

Military and Security

Military branches

Zambian Defense Force (ZDF): Zambia Army, Zambia Air Force, Zambia National Service (support organization) (2015)

Military service age and obligation

national registration required at age 16; 18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Zambian citizenship required; grade 12 certification required; mandatory HIV testing on enlistment; mandatory retirement for officers at age 65 (Army, Air Force) (2012)

Military expenditures 59/132

1.55% of GDP (2012)

1.59% of GDP (2011)

1.55% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 18,598 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2014)

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for southern Africa and possibly Europe; a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers; major consumer of cannabis