WorldABC.xyz: facts on every entity in the world

The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the former British South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated that favored whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence, but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded more complete voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. Robert MUGABE, the nation's first prime minister, has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence. His chaotic land redistribution campaign, which began in 1997 and intensified after 2000, caused an exodus of white farmers, crippled the economy, and ushered in widespread shortages of basic commodities. Ignoring international condemnation, MUGABE rigged the 2002 presidential election to ensure his reelection.

In April 2005, the capital city of Harare embarked on Operation Restore Order, ostensibly an urban rationalization program, which resulted in the destruction of the homes or businesses of 700,000 mostly poor supporters of the opposition. MUGABE in June 2007 instituted price controls on all basic commodities causing panic buying and leaving store shelves empty for months. General elections held in March 2008 contained irregularities but still amounted to a censure of the ZANU-PF-led government with the opposition winning a majority of seats in parliament. Movement for Democratic Change - Tsvangirai opposition leader Morgan TSVANGIRAI won the most votes in the presidential poll, but not enough to win outright. In the lead up to a run-off election in late June 2008, considerable violence against opposition party members led to the withdrawal of TSVANGIRAI from the ballot. Extensive evidence of violence and intimidation resulted in international condemnation of the process. Difficult negotiations over a power-sharing "government of national unity," in which MUGABE remained president and TSVANGIRAI became prime minister, were finally settled in February 2009, although the leaders failed to agree upon many key outstanding governmental issues. MUGABE was reelected president in June 2013 in balloting that was severely flawed and internationally condemned. As a prerequisite to holding the election, Zimbabwe enacted a new constitution by referendum, although many provisions in the new constitution have yet to be codified in law.



Southern Africa, between South Africa and Zambia

Geographic coordinates

20.00° S, 30.00° E

Area 61/257

total: 390,757 sq km

land: 386,847 sq km

water: 3,910 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly larger than Montana

Land boundaries

total: 3,229 km

border countries (4): Botswana 834 km, Mozambique 1,402 km, South Africa 230 km, Zambia 763 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)


mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in east


mean elevation:

elevation extremes:

lowest point: junction of the Runde and Save Rivers 162 m

highest point: Inyangani 2,592 m

Natural resources

coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals

Land use

agricultural land: 42.5%

arable land 10.9%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 31.3%

forest: 39.5%

other: 18% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

1,735 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources

20 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

total: 4.21 cu km/yr (14%/7%/79%)

per capita: 333.5 cu m/yr (2002)

Natural hazards

recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare

Environment - current issues

deforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd - once the largest concentration of the species in the world - has been significantly reduced by poaching; poor mining practices have led to toxic waste and heavy metal pollution

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zambia; in full flood (February-April) the massive Victoria Falls on the river forms the world's largest curtain of falling water; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)

People and Society


noun: Zimbabwean(s)

adjective: Zimbabwean

Ethnic groups

African 99.4% (predominantly Shona; Ndebele is the second largest ethnic group), other 0.4%, unspecified 0.2% (2012 est.)


Shona (official; most widely spoken), Ndebele (official, second most widely spoken), English (official; traditionally used for official business), 13 minority languages (official; includes Chewa, Chibarwe, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Shangani, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda, and Xhosa)


Protestant 75.9% (includes Apostolic 38%, Pentecostal 21.1%, other 16.8%), Roman Catholic 8.4%, other Christian 8.4%, other 1.2% (includes traditional, Muslim), none 6.1% (2011 est.)

Population 72/238


note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 37.88% (male 2,723,586/female 2,666,624)

15-24 years: 21.65% (male 1,550,518/female 1,530,737)

25-54 years: 33.4% (male 2,485,086/female 2,267,125)

55-64 years: 3.57% (male 184,517/female 324,079)

65 years and over: 3.49% (male 193,928/female 303,341) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 80.4%

youth dependency ratio: 75%

elderly dependency ratio: 5.3%

potential support ratio: 18.7% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 20.35 years

male: 20.4 years

female: 20.7 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate 39/233

2.21% (2015 est.)

Birth rate 34/224

32.26 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate 41/225

10.13 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate 77/222

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population

note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities (2015 est.)


urban population: 32.4% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

HARARE (capital) 1.501 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.57 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth


note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010/11 est.)

Maternal mortality rate 15/184

443 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate 69/224

total: 26.11 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 28.4 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 23.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth 205/224

total population: 57.05 years

male: 56.54 years

female: 57.57 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate 45/224

3.53 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

58.5% (2010/11)

Physicians density

0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2011)

Hospital bed density

1.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source


urban: 97% of population

rural: 67.3% of population

total: 76.9% of population


urban: 3% of population

rural: 32.7% of population

total: 23.1% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access


urban: 49.3% of population

rural: 30.8% of population

total: 36.8% of population


urban: 50.7% of population

rural: 69.2% of population

total: 63.2% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

16.74% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

1,550,300 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

38,600 (2014 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate 143/191

8.4% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight 69/138

11.2% (2014)

Education expenditures 155/173

2% of GDP (2010)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 11 years

male: 11 years

female: 11 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 116/134

total: 8.7%

male: 7.7%

female: 9.8% (2012 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe

conventional short form: Zimbabwe

former: Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia

Government type

parliamentary democracy


name: Harare

geographic coordinates: 17.49° S, 31.02° E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

8 provinces and 2 cities* with provincial status; Bulawayo*, Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands


18 April 1980 (from the UK)

National holiday

Independence Day, 18 April (1980)


previous 1965 (at Rhodesian independence), 1979 (Lancaster House Agreement), 1980 (at Zimbabwean independence); latest final draft completed January 2013, approved by referendum 16 March 2013, approved by Parliament 9 May 2013; amended many times in 2013; note - significant amendments proposed in early 2015 (2015)

Legal system

mixed legal system of English common law, Roman-Dutch civil law, and customary law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Zimbabwe; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Vice Presidents Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA and Phelekezela MPHOKO (both since 12 December 2014); note - Vice President Joice MUJURU (since 6 December 2004) was dismissed 9 December 2014

head of government: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); note - following the 31 July 2013 presidential election, the position of prime minister was abolished

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president, responsible to House of Assembly

elections/appointments: each presidential candidate nominated with a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least 1 candidate from each province) and directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 31 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018); co-vice presidents drawn from party leadership

election results: Robert Gabriel MUGABE reelected president; percent of vote - Robert Gabriel MUGABE (ZANU-PF) 61.1%, Morgan TSVANGIRAI (MDC-T) 34.4%, Welshman NCUBE (MDC-N) 2.7%, other 1.8%; note - the election process was considered flawed and roundly criticized by election monitors and international bodies; both the African Union and the South African Development Community endorsed the results of the election with some concerns

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (80 seats; 60 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - 6 seats in each of the 10 provinces - by proportional representation vote, 16 indirectly elected by the regional governing councils, 2 reserved for the National Council Chiefs, and 2 reserved for members with disabilities; members serve 5-year terms) and the House of Assembly (270 seats; 210 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 60 seats reserved for women directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 31 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ZANU-PF 37 MDC-T 21, MDC-N 2, chiefs 18, people with disabilities 2; House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ZANU-PF 197, MDC-T 70, MDC-N 2, independent 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 4 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission, an independent body consisting of the chief justice, Public Service Commission chairman, attorney general, and 2-3 members appointed by the president; judges normally serve until age 65 but can elect to serve until age 70

subordinate courts: High Court, regional magistrate courts, and special courts

Political parties and leaders

Freedom Party [Cosmas MPONDA]

Movement for Democratic Change - Ncube or MDC-N [Welshman NCUBE]

Movement for Democratic Change - Renewal or MDC-R [Sekai HOLLAND]; note - has been kicked out of Parliament as of 17 May 2015

Movement for Democratic Change - Tsvangirai or MDC-T [Morgan TSVANGIRAI]

Transform Zimbabwe or TZ [Jacob NGARIVHUME]

United Parties [Abel MUZOREWA]

Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga or ZANU-Ndonga [Wilson KUMBULA]

Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Robert Gabriel MUGABE]

Zimbabwe African Peoples Union or ZAPU [Dumiso DABENGWA]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Crisis in Zimbabwe Coalition

National Constitutional Assembly or NCA [Lovemore MADHUKU]

Women of Zimbabwe Arise or WOZA [Jenni WILLIAMS]

Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions or ZCTU [Japhet MOYO]

Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights or ZLHR [Irene PETRAS]

International organization participation


Flag description

seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white isosceles triangle edged in black with its base on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird representing the long history of the country is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle, which symbolizes peace; green represents agriculture, yellow mineral wealth, red the blood shed to achieve independence, and black stands for the native people

National symbol(s)

Zimbabwe bird symbol, African fish eagle, flame lily; national colors: green, yellow, red, black, white

National anthem

name: "Kalibusiswe Ilizwe leZimbabwe" [Northern Ndebele language] "Simudzai Mureza WeZimbabwe" [Shona] (Blessed Be the Land of Zimbabwe)

lyrics/music: Solomon MUTSWAIRO/Fred Lecture CHANGUNDEGA

note: adopted 1994


Economy - overview

Zimbabwe's economy depends heavily on its mining and agriculture sectors. Following a decade of contraction from 1998 to 2008, the economy recorded real growth of more than 10% per year from 2010-13, before slowing to roughly 3% in 2014 due to poor harvests, low diamond revenues, and decreased investment. Lower mineral prices, infrastructure and regulatory deficiencies, a poor investment climate, a large public and external debt burden, and extremely high government wage expenses impede the country’s economic performance.

Until early 2009, the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe (RBZ) routinely printed money to fund the budget deficit, causing hyperinflation. Dollarization in early 2009 - which allowed currencies such as the Botswana pula, the South Africa rand, and the US dollar to be used locally - ended hyperinflation and reduced inflation below 10% per year. The RBZ introduced bond coins denominated in 1, 5, 10, and 25 cent increments on a par with the US dollar in December 2014, more than five years after the Zimbabwe dollar was taken out of circulation. In January 2015, as part of the government’s effort to boost trade and attract foreign investment, the RBZ announced that the Chinese renmimbi, Indian rupee, Australian dollar, and Japanese yen would be accepted as legal tender in Zimbabwe.

Zimbabwe’s government entered a second Staff Monitored Program with the International Monetary Fund in 2014 and undertook other measures to reengage with international financial institutions. Foreign and domestic investment continues to be hindered by the lack of clarity regarding the government’s Indigenization and Economic Empowerment Act. In 2015 the depreciation of the South African rand against the US dollar has led to deflation in Zimbabwe as prices for South African imports decline while the costs of domestic production in US dollars remains stable.

GDP (purchasing power parity) 132/230

$27.92 billion (2015 est.)

$27.52 billion (2014 est.)

$26.66 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$13.91 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate 163/225

1.4% (2015 est.)

3.3% (2014 est.)

4.5% (2013 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) 200/230

$2,100 (2015 est.)

$2,100 (2014 est.)

$2,000 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Gross national saving 178/179

-10.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

-8.9% of GDP (2014 est.)

-12.5% of GDP (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 68.9%

government consumption: 32.2%

investment in fixed capital: 22.5%

investment in inventories: -0.1%

exports of goods and services: 68.8%

imports of goods and services: -92.3%

(2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 20%

industry: 26%

services: 53.3% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

tobacco, corn, cotton, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; sheep, goats, pigs


mining (coal, gold, platinum, copper, nickel, tin, diamonds, clay, numerous metallic and nonmetallic ores), steel; wood products, cement, chemicals, fertilizer, clothing and footwear, foodstuffs, beverages

Industrial production growth rate 51/202

4.2% (2015 est.)

Labor force 70/233

5.777 million (2015 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 66%

industry: 10%

services: 24% (1996)

Unemployment rate 207/207

95% (2009 est.)

80% (2005 est.)

note: figures include unemployment and underemployment; true unemployment is unknown and, under current economic conditions, unknowable

Population below poverty line

72.3% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 40.4% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index 22/144

50.1 (2006)

50.1 (1995)


revenues: $3.732 billion

expenditures: $4.615 billion (2014)

Taxes and other revenues 107/219

26.8% of GDP (2014)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) 187/220

-6.4% of GDP (2014)

Public debt 2/176

205.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

184.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices) 41/226

0.1% (2015 est.)

1.63% (2014 est.)

Central bank discount rate 43/156

7.17% (31 December 2010)

975% (31 December 2007)

Commercial bank prime lending rate 20/184

18% (31 December 2015 est.)

22% (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of narrow money 41/192

$76.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$41.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

note: Zimbabwe's central bank no longer publishes data on monetary aggregates, except for bank deposits, which amounted to $2.1 billion in November 2010; the Zimbabwe dollar stopped circulating in early 2009; since then, the US dollar and South African rand have been the most frequently used currencies; there are no reliable estimates of the amount of foreign currency circulating in Zimbabwe

Stock of broad money 70/193

$47.64 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

$101.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit 103/191

$9.902 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$9.474 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares 89/121

$4.073 billion (13 April 2015 est.)

$11.82 billion (31 December 2012)

$10.9 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Current account balance 161/197

-$3.187 billion (2015 est.)

-$3.046 billion (2014 est.)

Exports 125/224

$3.301 billion (2015 est.)

$3.263 billion (2014 est.)

Exports - commodities

platinum, cotton, tobacco, gold, ferroalloys, textiles/clothing

Exports - partners

China 27.8%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 12.3%, Botswana 11%, South Africa 6.8%, Belgium 4.4%, Zambia 4.1% (2014)

Imports 121/223

$5.207 billion (2015 est.)

$5.135 billion (2014 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and transport equipment, other manufactures, chemicals, fuels, food products

Imports - partners

South Africa 49.7%, China 8.8%, Zambia 5.5%, India 4.3% (2014)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold 152/170

$457 million (31 December 2015 est.)

$448 million (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external 109/206

$9.13 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$8.193 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

Exchange rates

Zimbabwean dollars (ZWD) per US dollar -

NA (2013)

234.25 (2010)

234.25 (2009)

9,686.8 (2007)

note: the dollar was adopted as a legal currency in 2009; since then the Zimbabwean dollar has experienced hyperinflation and is essentially worthless


Electricity - production 104/220

7.736 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption 106/219

6.831 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - exports 62/218

653 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - imports 60/219

1.201 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity 106/214

2.038 million kW (2012 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels 126/214

63.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels 214/214

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 62/214

36.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources 148/212

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production 214/214

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - exports 214/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - imports 86/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves 215/215

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production 150/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption 145/212

14,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports 150/214

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports 126/213

14,730 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Natural gas - production 152/216

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption 215/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports 215/215

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports 86/214

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves 212/212

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy 101/212

10.12 million Mt (2012 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines 113/219

total subscriptions: 330,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (2014 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular 77/217

total: 11.8 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 86 (2014 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: system was once one of the best in Africa, but now suffers from poor maintenance

domestic: consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines, radiotelephone communication stations, fixed wireless local loop installations, and a substantial mobile-cellular network; Internet connection is available in Harare and planned for all major towns and for some of the smaller ones

international: country code - 263; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat; 2 international digital gateway exchanges (in Harare and Gweru) (2010)

Broadcast media

government owns all local radio and TV stations; foreign shortwave broadcasts and satellite TV are available to those who can afford antennas and receivers; in rural areas, access to TV broadcasts is extremely limited (2007)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 7, FM 20 (plus 17 repeater stations), shortwave 1 (1998)

Television broadcast stations

16 (1997)

Internet country code


Internet hosts 108/232

30,615 (2012)

Internet users 88/217

total: 2.7 million

percent of population: 19.5% (2014 est.)


Airports 29/236

196 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 17

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 7 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 179

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 104

under 914 m: 72 (2013)


refined products 270 km (2013)

Railways 51/136

total: 3,427 km

narrow gauge: 3,427 km 1.067-m gauge (313 km electrified) (2014)

Roadways 47/223

total: 97,267 km

paved: 18,481 km

unpaved: 78,786 km (2002)


(some navigation possible on Lake Kariba) (2011)

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Binga, Kariba (Zambezi)

Military and Security

Military branches

Zimbabwe Defense Forces (ZDF): Zimbabwe National Army (ZNA), Air Force of Zimbabwe (AFZ) (2012)

Military service age and obligation

18-24 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; women are eligible to serve (2012)

Military expenditures 22/132

2.79% of GDP (2014)

2.64% of GDP (2013)

2.94% of GDP (2012)

2.05% of GDP (2011)

2.94% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Namibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river; South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: undetermined (political violence, violence in association with the 2008 election, human rights violations, land reform, and economic collapse) (2015)

Illicit drugs

transit point for cannabis and South Asian heroin, mandrax, and methamphetamines en route to South Africa